PM launches new payment platform e-RUPI Know what is e-RUPI, how it works, what are its benefits and how to download:

Hello friends, on 2nd August 2021 our honorable Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched a cashless and contactless means of digital payments. e-RUPI has been launched. The objective of this one time payment system is to stop leakages in government welfare schemes, and ensure that the benefits reach the people they should be.

In this article, we have tried to provide all the information related to e-RUPI to all of you readers, so to know this article “What is e-RUPI, how it works, what are its benefits and how to download” Do read till the last.

What is e-RUPI? (e-Rupi Kya Hai)

e-RUPI is a platform which has a cashless and contactless means which will be used for making digital payments. It is a QR code or SMS string-based e-voucher that will be delivered to the users’ mobiles. Users will be able to redeem this voucher without any digital payment app, internet banking or card. This digital payment platform has been developed by National Payments Corporation of India on its UPI platform. Associate partners are the Department of Financial Services, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the National Health Authority. This initiative will connect the sponsor of the services with the beneficiaries and service providers and the connection will be done in a digital manner without any physical interface.

e-RUPI has been developed in collaboration with the National Payments Corporation of India and other co-operative departments.

How will e-RUPI work?

According to the Prime Minister Shri Modi, now the beneficiaries can get a QR code or an SMS-based electronic voucher on their mobile phone and they need to use a card, digital payment app or even to avail the e-voucher. That internet banking access will not be required. For example: You bought a product and received a voucher on purchase. With e-RUPI, you do not need to carry the voucher in physical form. Vouchers can be sent to your mobile phone in the form of QR code or SMS.

According to the government this digital solution is secure as it ensures payment only after the transaction is completed. Being pre-paid in nature, it facilitates timely payment to the service provider without any intermediary.

The system can also be very useful in ensuring leak-proof delivery of government welfare services, such as providing medicines and nutritional support under mother and child welfare schemes or under TB eradication programmes. E-vouchers can also be set up to the beneficiaries for Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana and fertilizer subsidy etc. Since these payments will be sent in the form of vouchers, they can be used only for the intended purpose.

Procedure to issue Vouchers under e-RUPI:

As we mentioned e-RUPI digital payment system has been developed by National Payment Corporation of India on its UPI platform. The National Payments Corporation of India has joined the banks that will be the voucher issuing authority. The corporate or government agency is required to approach the partner bank (private and public sector lenders) with the details of the specific person and purpose for which the payment is required to be made. Beneficiaries will be identified using their mobile number vouchers allotted by the bank. This platform will be our revolutionary digital initiative that will improve the quality of life and simplify the payment process.

What is the purpose of e-RUPI digital payment?

The main objective of e-RUPI digital payment platform is to provide cashless and contactless payment system so that citizens can make digital payments without any difficulty. With the help of this payment platform, users can make payments in a secure manner and this payment platform uses QR code or SMS-based e-voucher which will be delivered on the beneficiary’s mobile. e-RUPI digital payment platform ensures timely payment of services without the involvement of any intermediary. Users do not need any card or digital payment app or internet banking access to make payment which will make the payment process simple and secure.

Features of e-RUPI Digital Payment

  • This platform will be cashless and contactless
  • Through this system users can make digital payment through e-voucher with the help of QR code or SMS
  • This voucher will be delivered to the users mobile
  • Users can redeem this voucher without any payment app, internet banking or card
  • Through this initiative the sponsor of the services will be linked with the beneficiaries and service providers. This connection will be conducted digitally without any physical interface
  • Payment to the service provider through this platform will be done after the transaction is completed
  • This payment platform is fully prepaid.
  • No service provider is required to make payment to e-RUPI
  • This platform can also be used for providing services under schemes which are for providing medicines and nutritional support.

Highlights of e-RUPI provided by Hon’ble Prime Minister:

On the occasion of launching the e-RUPI platform, the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India criticized the various benefits of this platform.

  • Honorable Prime Minister Narendra Modi ji says that this initiative is a step towards digital governance.
  • With the help of this platform, digital transactions can be done easily and this platform will play a major role in making digital payments effective.
  • This voucher will help in transacting in a targeted, transparent and leak free manner.
  • The Prime Minister has also highlighted the fact that India is moving ahead with the help of digital technology.
  • The standard of living of the citizens is improving and technology is playing a major role in the lives of the citizens of India.
  • He has also expressed his gratitude that this initiative is being started when the country is celebrating Amrit Mahotsav on 75th Independence Day.
  • This voucher can be used not only by the government but also various NGOs can provide this voucher in place of cash if they want to help someone in education, health etc.
  • This initiative will ensure that the funds provided to the beneficiaries are utilized for the same purpose.
  • In the initial phase of the scheme, only health sector benefits will be covered.
  • The Prime Minister has given various examples of using this voucher such as in vaccination campaigns, old age homes, hospitals etc.
  • This voucher is individual and purpose specific.
  • Only the person for whom this voucher has been issued can use it.
  • He has also highlighted the importance of technology.

Many private hospitals, corporates, businesses, NGOs and other institutions have shown their interest in e-RUPI.

How to Check Live Hospitals List on e-RUPI?

  • Firstly the official website of National Payment Corporation of India Go to
  • After opening the website, the home page will open in front of you.
  • After opening the homepage, the option of “what we do” will appear, click on it.
  • now you UPI have to click on.
  • after that you e-RUPI live partners have to click on.
  • after that you Live Hospitals on e-RUPI have to click on.
  • After clicking on Live Hospitals on e-RUPI, a PDF file will appear in front of you.
  • In this PDF file you can see the list of Live Hospitals on e-RUPI.

What are the benefits of e-RUPI?

benefits for consumers

The payment process is contactless and only has to be followed by a two-step redemption process. No need of any kind of digital payment app or bank account. The consumer is not required to share his/her personal details to maintain confidentiality.

benefits for hospitals

The vouchers received are prepaid hence the payment process is completely secure. Vouchers can be redeemed in few steps. Hospitals do not need to handle cash hence hassle free and contactless payment can be ensured through voucher verification code. Which makes the payment process easy and safe and secure.

benefits for corporates

Corporate voucher distribution enables employee wellbeing by quick, secure and contactless issuers, can track voucher redemption thereby reducing costs as transactions are digital and do not require any physical issuance it occurs.

How to Download e-RUPI Digital Payment Mobile App?

  • To download e-RUPI, first go to Google play store or Apple App Store in your mobile phone.
  • Now you have to search by entering e-RUPI Digital Payment in the search box.
  • After searching, a list of apps will be displayed in your screen where e-RUPI will be found at the top.
  • You have to click on the first option.
  • After that you have to click on install.
  • Once installed, the e-RUPI mobile app on your mobile will be downloaded and usable on your mobile.

How to redeem e-RUPI Voucher?

  • To redeem the e-RUPI voucher, the beneficiary has to show the e-RUPI QR code or SMS at the service provider outlet.
  • The seller has to scan this QR code or SMS.
  • Now the beneficiary will receive an OTP.
  • The beneficiary has to share this OTP with the service provider.
  • The service provider has to enter this OTP in the OTP box
  • Now the service provider has to click on Proceed.
  • After doing all this, your e-RUPI voucher will be read.


What is e-RUPI?

e-RUPI is a cashless and contactless digital payment medium, which will be delivered to the mobile phones of the beneficiaries in the form of SMS-string or QR code.

What is e-RUPI Voucher?

e-RUPI is a digital voucher that can be redeemed by the beneficiaries for using any specific government services. The digital system does not require a card, app or internet access to redeem the voucher.

Who can use e-RUPI?

The e-RUPI voucher issued by this system can be used only by the person who would have been allotted the e-RUPI voucher. In a statement issued by the Prime Minister, it was said that Sakar can also use this system in Ayushman Bharat, Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, fertilizer subsidy etc.


Giving a speech about e-RUPI, Prime Minister Shri Modi said that ‘Some people of India were saying that technology is only for rich countries and India is a poor country, so what is its work in India? But today India has served the mentality of those people wrong. Today we are seeing technology as a weapon of progress for the poor”.

This speech definitely suggests that we are slowly moving on the path of progress.

You have this article of ours.What is e-RUPI, how it works, what are its benefits and how to download” How did you like it, do tell by commenting and don’t forget to share this article thanks.

Hello friends, the much awaited IPO of online food delivery Zomato has been announced for distribution on Dalal Street. It has fixed the offer price for the same. Its public offering is ₹72-76 per share and you can apply for membership to buy shares from 14th July.

The offer price of the Zomato IPO is probably ₹9,375 crore, which is the second highest IPO after SBI Cards and Payment Services’ offer of ₹10,340 crore in March last year. The application for membership of the IPO will close on July 16, which includes an IPO sale offer of ₹375 crore by the company’s initial investors and a fresh distribution of ₹9,000 crore. This IPO is likely to be listed on the stock exchange on July 27 in the stock market.

Should you invest in Zomato IPO or not this post will be helpful for you :- Should I invest in Zomato IPO or not??

Special information about Zomato IPO:

  • Issue period: 14 July 2021-16 July 2021
  • IPO Size: ₹9375 Crore
  • Price: ₹72 to 76 per share
  • Slot: Minimum 195 shares, and thereafter in multiples of 195. An investor can buy a maximum of 13 slots.
  • Size of Quota: For the retail category, the quota has been fixed at 10% of the net offer, while for Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIBs) at 75% and Non-Institutional Investors (NII) quota at 15%.
  • Kotak Mahindra Capital, Morgan Stanley India and Credit Suisse Securities (India) are the global coordinators and book running lead managers (BRLMs).
  • Bank of America (BofA) Securities and Citigroup Global Markets India will manage the issue while Link Intime India is the registrar of the issue.
  • GMP: Zomato’s Grey Market Premium is trading at around 13-15 which, according to market observers, is around 20% at the upper end of the IPO price band of 76.
  • The Zomato IPO will be listed for the stock exchange on BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) on July 27.

If you do not know how to buy IPO, then you must read this post – What is IPO, how many types and how to buy IPO?

How to Buy Zomato IPO

You can buy IPO both online or offline.

To buy online:-

  • You have to first open a Demat Account and a Trading Account. Both these accounts will be linked to your normal bank account. And if you already have Trading Account and Demat Account then follow the following steps.
  • Once your trading account is opened, you need to open it and select Zomato IPO.
  • Now, transfer the amount for the number of shares you wish to apply for in the trading account through your bank account.
  • If the shares will be allotted to you by the same IPO, the shares will be transferred to your demat account.
  • If you do not get the allotment of shares, your deposited amount will be returned to you. The refund transaction will be done either by directly transferring the amount to your postal address or it will be transferred to your bank account through ECS.

To buy online, you can go to the apps of Groww, Zerodha, UpsTox, ICICI etc.

To buy offline:-

  • First you need to take an application form from your broker and fill it thoroughly covering every mandatory field.
  • You must also have a Demat account for offline purchases. It is not necessary to open a trading account. This will be required only if you have a plan to sell your shares which you had acquired through IPO.
  • You have to decide the amount you want to invest in the IPO to buy the shares and then issue a check for that particular amount.
  • If your amount is more than Rs 50,000, then attach the copy of PAN card with your application form.
  • You will have to hand over these documents, i.e. application form, PAN card copy and check to your broker, who in turn will give you a receipt.
  • The broker will then submit your form to the company and thus your application for share of shares will be executed.

Should you invest in Zomato IPO or not this post will be helpful for you :- Should I invest in Zomato IPO or not??


Before buying Zomato IPO, one should get an idea of ​​how much the share price will return by looking at the company’s market performance, profit and loss. And those who are thinking of investing for the long term, they should invest with utmost concern.

What is your opinion and opinion about Zomato’s IPO, do tell us by commenting and also share the post.


Zomato Ltd. What is IPO?

The issue size of Zomato Limited IPO is around Rs 9,375 crore. It is a combination of fresh issue of Rs 9,000 crore and offer for sale of Rs 375 crore.

Zomato Ltd. What is Pre-Apply for IPO?

Pre-application will allow you to apply for Zomato IPO 3-4 days before the start of the subscription period. The Zomato IPO is open for subscription from July 12 to July 16.

Zomato Ltd. When will the order be placed after pre-applying for an IPO?

Your order will be placed on the exchange as soon as Zomato IPO bidding starts. You will receive a UPI request within 24 hours of the opening of the bidding period.

Zomato Ltd. What are the opening and closing dates of the IPO?

The Zomato IPO is open for subscription between July 14 and July 16, 2021.

What is the size of Zomato IPO?

The size of Zomato’s IPO is for ₹1 equity shares of up to ₹9,375.00 crore

Zomato Ltd. What are the allotment dates for IPO?

The shares will be allotted around July 22.

When will Zomato’s IPO get listed in the stock market?

Zomato’s IPO will be listed on BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) and NSE (National Stock Exchange) on July 27.

What is Global Warming? | What is Global Warming?

Changes in radiation or heat balance are taking place due to globally respectable activities which are causing problems for the world in the form of global warming and the resulting global environmental changes. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere close to the Earth’s surface in the Solar System, which changes global climate patterns. Global warming is usually the result of an increase in heat generated by an increase in greenhouse gases emitted by human activities.

What is Greenhouse?

The greenhouse is like a building made of glass walls. Plants in these greenhouses are grown in areas with cold climates or in cold countries. Despite low outdoor temperatures, greenhouse temperatures continue to rise.

What is the working process of Greenhouse?

Visible light can pass through short wave endurance or greenhouse gases. Infrared light cannot pass through long-wave long glass greenhouse gases and back again.

What is the Greenhouse Effect?

Some of the solar radiation coming from the Sun is changed by the Earth and the atmosphere. Some of the radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and heats it. Infrared radiation is released by the earth and some infrared radiation enters the atmosphere. Some greenhouse gases are absorbed by the atmosphere and released again in all directions. This heats up the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere.

How is the earth like a greenhouse?

Prithvi is the Indian function of a green planet. The Earth’s greenhouse, which is found in the Earth’s lower atmosphere, is wrapped in the Earth like a blanket and acts like the glass of the greenhouse. That is, it allows shorter wavelengths of solar radiation to come in but absorbs longer wavelengths of radiation returning from Earth. This adjustment transmits heat waves from the Earth’s surface to the surface out of space. This causes the Earth’s cover to shrink slightly, keeping the Earth warm and habitable. Therefore, a natural greenhouse keeps the earth’s surface warm and provides a certain temperature.

What is the natural greenhouse effect?

Nature is responsible for the greenhouse effect caused by naturally occurring greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This process makes the Earth’s surface warm and habitable. The natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth warm at a mean temperature of 15 °C. In the absence of greenhouse gases, the Earth’s average temperature could drop to minus 20 degrees Celsius. The emissions of man-made clean household gases upset the natural balance and increase the temperature. As the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere increases, there will be more infrared radiation, which will increase the greenhouse effect.

What are the disadvantages of Green House Effect?

  • In the summer season, the heat will increase and natural disaster will increase. Cyclone will be normal.
  • There will be disturbance in the water balance on the earth.
  • Life and ecosystems may be disrupted.
  • Due to the influence of seasonal patterns, there is a risk of irregular rainfall in many parts of the world.
  • Increasing greenhouse effect can harm human life and the world economy.
  • A two to three percent increase in temperature could reduce global production.

What are Greenhouse Gases?

Greenhouse gas refers to those gases in the atmosphere that are both natural and man-made. It absorbs and releases infrared radiation. Water vapor and CO2 are found in abundance in the atmosphere such as those found in the atmosphere and absorb more and more of the infrared radiation in an area. The other main greenhouse gases are CH4 (methane), N2O (nitrous oxide) and CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons).

water vapour

Water vapor is the most variable and uneven distribution component in the atmosphere. Its volume varies at different altitudes. The amount of water vapor decreases with height. Apart from this, it also decreases on moving from low latitudes to high latitudes. The water vapor reduces the amount of sunlight on the ground by consuming some part of the sunset. It absorbs the Earth’s radiation and produces a greenhouse effect such as CO2. Humans are not directly responsible for water vapor emissions because they do not emit the amount of water vapor that causes significant changes in atmospheric concentration. However, an increase in the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is also caused by CO2 and other greenhouse gases, increasing the evaporation rate of plants. Also, like CO2, water vapor cannot remain constant in the air, as it changes through the water cycle in the form of waterlogging and precipitation and condensation.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide gas accounts for 60% of global warming. It is a primary greenhouse gas emitted by honorable works. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s carbon cycle (the natural flow of carbon between the atmosphere, oceans, soil, flora and fauna). It is the main heat absorber viz. Any change in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can change the temperature of the atmosphere.


Methane gas contributes 20% to global warming. It is present much less in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide. But its importance is greater because this mission is 20 to 30 times more efficient than carbon dioxide in absorbing infrared rays emitted by Earth. Methane is the product of incomplete decomposition and under anoxic conditions methane is produced by bacteria. Methane is emitted from wetlands with freshwater because methane is produced due to the decomposition of oxygen under the influence of organic matter. Termites digest cellulose and produce methane in the same sequence. Methane is produced as a result of anoxic action by Methanogen bacteria in flood affected paddy fields and Kutch areas. Methane gas is also produced by grazing animals such as cows, bulls and sheep. Coal mining and mining for oil and natural gas are other sources of methane emissions.

Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

Nitrous oxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s nitrogen cycle. Or 6% of the gas is responsible for global heating. Nitrous oxide is also known as laughing gas.

fluorinated gases

They contribute 14% to global warming. They are emitted into the atmosphere by replacing this ozone-depleting material and by many industrial processes such as the manufacture of aluminum and semiconductors. Most fluorinated gases have a greater global heat capacity than other greenhouse gases. Fluorinated gases are the most potent and long-lived type of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. There are mainly three types of fluorinated gas –

1. HFC- Hydrofluorocarbons

Ozone of hydrofluorocarbons was introduced as a replacement for dissolved gases such as CFCs and HCFCs. Although ozone does not dissolve with this gas, it is a strong greenhouse gas and has an important role in climate change. Because it increases global warming. It is regulated by the Kyoto Protocol and not the Montreal Protocol. HFCs have a long atmospheric life span and high global heat capacity. It is used in cold refrigerators, aerosol propellants, solvents and fire fighting equipment.

2. PFC- Perfluorocarbon

These components are honed products of various industrial processes associated with aluminum production and manufacturing of semi-conductors. PFCs also have a longer environmental life and higher global heat capacity on the HFC side.

3. SF6- Sulfur Hexafluoride

SF6 is used in the manufacturing of semiconductors in magnesium processes. Also, it is a detection gas used for leak detection. SF6 is used in power distribution equipment which also includes circuit breakers. SF6 has a global heat capacity of 22800 which makes it a strong greenhouse gas according to the IPCC.

Other factors affecting global warming

black carbon

Black is not an organic gas but a solid particle or aerosol commonly known as soot, which is a constituent of particulate matter and is produced by the reduction of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass. Or the light-absorbing material that contributes to global warming. It has the ability to heat the air directly. At the same time, it reduces the albedo of the earth by accumulating on ice and snow which makes the earth warmer. It freezes on snow and ice, darkening them and melting them. Black carbon is directly emitted into the atmosphere in the form of fine particles. Black carbon can absorb a million times more heat than CO2. Black carbon affects the climate by-

  • By absorbing direct sunlight.
  • Reduce reflection from snow and ice deposits.
  • hitting the clouds.

Regionally, black carbon disrupts monsoon rains in clouds and accelerates the melting of Hindukush Himalayan glaciers, etc. Due to its temperature and melting effect, sensitive areas like Arctic and Himalayan regions remain vulnerable.
Black carbon produces atmospheric brown clouds and changes precipitation patterns and intensity. Black carbon has a short atmospheric life span. It can remain in the environment for only a few days to weeks. As a result, black carbon emissions are reduced and their effect ends within 30 days.

The post What is Global Warming| What is Global Warming? appeared first on WebHindi.

Best climate change essay 2021| climate change essay 2021

The environment around the Earth is an important component of the natural environment and biosphere ecosystem because when all kinds of existence in the system are possible only because of the gases contained in the atmosphere. It acts like an atmosphere because it absorbs incoming ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and prevents them from reaching the Earth’s surface, so the surface temperature does not rise excessively.

climate change essay
climate change essay

Climate is the average of the weather events of a place over a long period of time. Earth’s climate is not good. Weather and climate and natural causes change on a local, regional and global scale, but following the development of science and technology after the Industrial Revolution, human affairs have begun to change rapidly as humans alter the fundamental structure of atmospheric organizations. Gives and is able to crush. Its effect has started to affect the flora and fauna of the human community. Especially the very existence of mankind is in danger. This type of change in climate is called climate change. This means climate change caused by human activities 100 years ago. The geographic meaning of climate change is a long-term change in seasonal patterns.
Climate change parity is measured by a large change in temperature, precipitation, snow and wind patterns that occurs over several years. Climate change is being caused by humans burning large amounts of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas (which reduces the absorption capacity of carbon and forests and releases accumulated carbon into the atmosphere).

signs of climate change

Since the origin of the Earth, there have been many changes in the climate. Evidences of climate change in the Earth’s past years are called indicators of climate change. Here are some complete climate signs details-

biological indicators

  • Botanical Indicators – Fossils of plants, oxygen isotopes, growths found in tree trunks.
  • Zoological indicators – distribution and transmission of animal fossils, fossils, animals.

physical indicators

  • Sediment deposits in glacial lakes, coal sedimentary deposits, soil indicators, traces of advance and retreat of glaciers in certain latitudes.

snow indicator

  • Geological records reveal the transition process between the Ice Age and the Inter-Ice Age, respectively.

tectonic indicator

  • Plate tectonic – poleward movement and continental drift, hypochromaticism and oceanic diffusion.
    change in sea level.

historical record

  • flood record
  • dry record

factors affecting climate change

Climate change is a long-term process that is influenced by natural and human actions. Before industrialization human factors played little role in this process. The process of industrialization, urbanization and indiscriminate exploitation of resources has created serious problems in the form of global warming and pollution. The following are the natural and human factors of climate change.

The effect of natural factors on climate change

The atmosphere generally maintains a state of stability, due to which there are short to long term changes in weather and climate in terms of time and space. Long-term climate change persists for thousands of years and occurs very slowly. Climate change is always caused by natural work.

  • Variation in solar radiation – The amount of sunset that the Earth receives keeps on decreasing due to changes in the Earth’s orbital position or changes in the Earth’s axial tilt etc. Prolonged increases in the amount of sun’s radiation cause the atmosphere to warm, producing a warmer climate and melting ice sheets and glaciers. Similarly, due to a decrease in the amount of sunlight, atmospheric temperature declines, leading to the rise of the sheet phase of the climate and finally the arrival of the Ice Age. Again the increase in the Sun’s radiation due to contraction in the Sun core leads to an increase in atmospheric temperature and the Himalayan period ends and begins intermittently.
  • Sunspot Cycle – The activation of solar stigma increases as the number of solar stigmas increases, which increases the amount of solar radiation. This heats up the Earth’s surface and its atmosphere. For this reason, decreasing the solar stigma reduces the amount of solar radiation, which leads to a drop in atmospheric temperature.
  • Volcanic weathering – Dust and ash emitted by volcanoes destroy some of the short-wave Sun’s radiation in the lower atmosphere by scattering, reflection and absorption, thus reducing the amount of Sun’s radiation reaching the surface. Because the temperature of the lower atmosphere is controlled by the weather and climate at Earth’s surface, it causes the Earth to cool. After the Philippines’ Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991, the Earth’s average temperature dropped to about 0.5 °C.
  • Changes in atmospheric gaseous composition – There is a constant change in the amount of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, water vapor etc. in the atmosphere. Their emissions are mainly due to natural factors and the imbalance of these gases produced by nature is balanced by different regions. But when man-made causes a change in this balance of the earth, its compensatory nature is unable to do so. As a result, events such as climate change occur.
  • Continental Drift – Various theories related to continental drift such as Wegener’s continental theory, Harry Haas’s ocean net spread and Morgan’s plate tectonic theory are also helpful in explaining the causes of climate change.

The impact of man-made factors on climate change

Short-lived climate change occurs through humanization, urbanization, industrialization, etc., for human-caused work. The current climate change is a man-made problem. Man affects the environment with his problems. The activities carried out by human beings with nature to achieve economic objectives and material goals have destroyed the balance of the natural environment. Such problems are called environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is the only problem facing humans in Haji in the form of climate change and pollution. The anthropogenic factors and their contribution to climate change are as follows:

  • misuse of resources
  • Urbanization and rapid industrialization
  • Fuel scarcity and use of fossil fuels
  • massive land use change
  • Increase in the emission of GHG, CO2 etc. into the atmosphere
  • ozone depletion in the stratosphere
  • rise in temperature

Effects of climate change on humans and ecosystems

Climate change has been affecting the human ecosystem for a long time. The truth of this fact can be seen in the form of melting glaciers, polar ice fractures, monsoon changes, rising sea levels, ecosystems and deadly heat waves.

  • Effects and diseases on human health
  • Impact on agriculture and food security and food quality
  • Impact on Ecology and Biodiversity
  • Water stress, water insecurity
  • melting glacier
  • sea ​​level rise
  • increase in atmospheric and ocean temperatures
  • impact on land resources
  • weather events

My salutations to all, many people must have come to mind that what is gst? What are the types of GST? In India, a lot of tax is paid, but what type of tax is GST, today we will know in detail.

What is the meaning of GST?

The full name of GST is Goods and Service Tax which is a replacement tax of Excise Duty, VAT, Services Tax and other indirect taxes. In simple language, other indirect taxes like Excise Duty, VAT, Service Tax have been removed and replaced by one. The tax system GST was started so that all those indirect taxes can also be collected.

When was the GST system started?

Actually, the GST scheme was first done in the year 2000.

Atal Bihari Bajpayee’s government at the time of the then government of India. GST was proposed. At that time the Finance Ministers of all the states of India had formed a committee to prepare the GST structure based on the experience of the VAT structure of their respective states. Examine all aspects and prepare reports on thresholds, exemptions, taxation of inter-state supplies and taxation of services.

It took 17 years to develop this new tax system and finally got approval on the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha in the year 2017 and on July 1 of that year, GST was brought into law across the country.

Which indirect tax was removed from GST?

  • Central Tax :-
  • Central Excise Tax (Excise Duty)
  • Central Sales Tax
  • Service Tax
  • Additional Duties of Customs
  • Additional Duties of Excise
  • Excise Duties levied under the Textiles and Textiles Products
  • State Tax :-
  • Purchase Tax
  • Central Sales Tax
  • VAT
  • Surcharges and CESS
  • Entry Tax
  • Taxes on Lottery, Gambling and Betting
  • Taxes on Advertisements

Type of GST

There are 3 types of GST

  1. CGST – When any goods are sold within a state, then the GST which is collected by the Central Government of India.
  2. SGST When some goods are sold within a state, then along with the central government, the state government also has to pay tax. The tax we pay to the state government is called SGST or State GST.
  3. IGST When any goods are sold between two states, the tax collected by the central government is called IGST.

In simple language, if any goods are sold within a state, then both the central government and the state government have to pay tax. (CGST + SGST) And when goods of one state are sold in another state, then only the central government has to pay tax. (IGST)

Benefits of GST

  • One Nation One Tax Law

Before the introduction of GST, the tax system used to be very complex. In each of the states of the country, their own tax laws used to run. It used to be different in the states. Due to all this, the states were benefited and it had a bad effect on the economy of the country. Therefore, by imposing the same tax law for the whole country, the differential tax system should be stopped in all the states. Gaya and the country’s economy improved slightly.

  • control over the price of goods

The tax system before GST used to levy a lot of tax on goods, as mentioned on the above point, each stage of production of a commodity was taxed till it was sold to the final consumer. Due to the passing of various stages of tax on a commodity, its price automatically increased, but with the help of GST, the price of the goods worked a little.

  • Small Businesses Benefited from GST Composition Scheme

In order to encourage less tax and tax compliance, composition scheme under GST was introduced. Small business owners registered under the scheme are required to pay a certain percentage of tax on their business. Also, unlike regular GST taxpayers Small businesses registered under the composition scheme are required to file a quarterly return. The following are the tax rates under the composition scheme:

  • Small businesses with a turnover of Rs 1.50 crore will pay a direct GST rate of 1%. They will now file only one tax return.
  • Small service providers with an annual turnover of Rs 50 lakh will now pay 6% GST instead of 18%.
  • Simplified the system of tax return

There were many indirect taxes on the previous tax system, so the registered businessmen for different indirect cars had to face many compliances.

  • Product Duty Return – Monthly / Quarterly depends on the scale of the business unit. (Large Business, EOU or SSI)
  • Service Tax – Half Yearly Return
  • Value Added Tax – Monthly/Quarterly depending on the state which is responsible for collecting VAT.

I do not have to go through so many castes to return tax under GST. And anyway, due to the online system, GST registration and return filing became even easier.

  1. What is the full form name of GST?

    Full form of GST Goods and Service Tax

  2. Who can file GST?

    Only those whose annual income is 20 lakhs or more have to pay GST.

  3. How many times do I have to file GST in a year?

    every month of the year.

  4. What happens if GST is not filed on time?

    Penalty of 10% of the tax amount payable subject to a minimum of Rs.10,000.


It is certain that due to the impact of GST, the country’s economy has improved a bit and it has become easier for the taxpayers to return the tax. so guys today we What is GST? I have tried to understand about it in detail and if you liked this post, then definitely tell by commenting and share it with your friends. Thank you.

What is Red Data Book?

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has been on a global scale for the past 50 years in collaboration with the Global Species Program and the Species Survival Commission. exposes and promotes their protection. The publication of the Red Data Book was started in order to delineate the status of castes and the measures needed to protect them. The IUCN, in conjunction with the Global Species Program and Species Survival Totals, provides unbiased and science-based information on the threatened status of global biodiversity. Plants, fungi and animals are assessed/marked on the IUCN Red List. These are the factors that hold the genetic diversity of plants, fungi and animals and keep the ecosystem functioning.

Red Data Book

Red Data Book

IUCN classification

The species are placed in a total of nine categories according to their status on the IUCN Red List.
This assessment is done on the basis of decline in the number of species, their position in the geographical area.
The categories prescribed by the IUCN are as follows:

1. extinct

Species of which no members are alive and their numbers have been completely eliminated in all habitats of the world and it will be known with confidence or that the species has completely disappeared is called extinct species. Over a period of time it is estimated whether a species of a species is alive on it, if they do not get the presence of time at that time, they are placed in the extinct category.

2. Extinct in the Wild

Species in which all species have lost their lineage and many species are kept in zoos or other artificial habitats apart from their natural habitat.

3. Critically Endangered

When species are at serious risk of extinction from forests, they are classified as critically endangered, if a population reduction of more than 90% is recorded in 10 years, they are classified as critically endangered. is kept in. If the population of Hindi species is less than 250 and there is a reduction of 25% in 3 years, then they are classified as critically endangered. If there are only 50 or less mature members, it is classified as critically endangered. A critically endangered species is a category very close to extinction. Species in this range have a 50% chance of extinction.

4. Endangered

Such species are in danger of extinction from the forests. If a population reduction of 70% is observed or recorded in 10 years, the species is classified as endangered. Only 250 slept with the lowest mature member count. Under this category 20% of species are expected to become extinct in 20 years. If the population of the species is less than 2500 and there is a decrease of 20% within 5 years, it is placed in this category. Organisms that fall under this category are at high risk of extinction.

5. Weak

Species that are likely to be endangered by forests. A decrease of more than 50% in the number of species has been recorded in 10 years. The species has a population of less than 10,000 and is declining by 10% within 10 years. Only 6 if 1000 or less mature members are placed in this category. There is a risk of extinction in this category.

6. Near Danger

The species is likely to be threatened in the near future.

7. Least Worry

Species in this category are at very low risk. This species is found in a wide area. Species in this category are not threatened in the future.

8. Lack of Data

Due to the paucity of data about the species, its conservation status and crisis cannot be predicted. The species threatened with extinction cannot be clicked due to lack of sufficient data, directly or indirectly. India is unable to estimate the wide area and sufficient number of species.

9. Not rated

The species’ protected status has not been assessed on the IUCN’s conservation criteria.

Biodiversity Hotspots in India

In this article, we will learn about the biodiversity hotspots in India. India has an important place in terms of biodiversity. India covers 2.4% of the total area of ​​the world. More than 8% of the world’s biodiversity is found here. There are total 4 hotspot areas in India, out of which two hotspot areas are located in the most hotspot areas of the world. Sunderland was declared a hotspot area by the United Nations in 2013, which includes the Nankauri Islands, including the Nicobar Islands of Trinket.

Biodiversity hotspots in India

Following are the biodiversity hotspots in India-

  1. Biodiversity Hotspots in India
  2. Himalayan region
  3. Indo Burma Region
  4. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Region
  5. Sunderland (Nankuri Islands, which includes Trinquet, Great Nicobar Islands)
  6. Himalayan Hotspot

The Eastern Himalayan Hotspot is spread over the areas of North-Central India, South Central and East Nepal and Bhutan. Geographically, it is the highest place in the world in terms of area. Everest and Mount K2 are the highest peaks in the world. It is a very important area from the point of view of biodiversity. Evergreen forests are found here due to excessive rainfall. Due to favorable conditions in terms of rainfall and temperature, the fauna here has an abundance of endemic species of trees and plants. It is heavily affected due to the widening of the hotspot area. Here some species are also found at higher altitudes such as Circhesteraceae, Butomaceae and Stachyuraceae are endemic species.
Pygmyhog, Golden Langur, Himalayan Tahr, Langur, Asiatic Wild Dog, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Muntjac, Sambar, Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Blue Sheep, Takin, Ganges Dolphin, Underwater Buffalo, Swamp Deer, Himalayan Fauna. The Namdapha flying squirrel is a highly endangered local animal found in the Namdapha National Park.

Indo Burma Hotspot

The Indo Burma Hotspot region is spread over several countries. Whose area extends from eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia. Or the north eastern region of India, the southern part of the Brahmaputra river, extending from Myanmar, to the Greece region of southern China. Apart from this, it is also spread in the areas of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand.
The hotspot area of ​​Indo Burma is surrounded by highly forested areas, but due to environmental imbalance and human encroachment, these forest areas are shrinking, affecting the endemic species of the region. Many species like monkey, langur and gibbon are found in this area. let’s go. Species of freshwater turtles, which are endemic species, are found in large numbers. Ginger is an endemic species of the region. Apart from this, many species of birds are also found here. The endangered white-eared night heron, gray crown crosia and orange-naked petri are endemic species that are now on the verge of extinction.

Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Hotspot

The hotspot region extends to southwestern India and the southwestern highlands region of Sri Lanka. The Western Ghats of India are mostly mountainous regions. Due to excessive rainfall, rain forests and moist deciduous forests are found here. Due to the conditions here for the development of flora and fauna, abundance of biodiversity is found. The Western Ghats locally bring the Sahyadri mountain peaks, which include the Malabar plains and mountain ranges.

There are about 6000 species of plants, of which 3000 are endemic. There is a lot of talk of population in this area. Evergreen forests Rain forests are found in the Sri Lankan region. Some special species like Asian elephant, Nilgiris, Tahr, Indian tiger, lion tail monkey, large sized squirrel are also found here.

Sunderland Hotspot

The Sunderland Hotspot region extends to the western part of the Indo Malaya Islands located in Southeast Asia. The United Nations declared the Sunderland Hotspot region a world reserve biosphere in 2013. It is a very important region in terms of land and marine biodiversity. Important flora and fauna species are found naturally in this area. Special species like coral, whale, dugong, tortoise, crocodile, fish etc. are found. Due to over-exploitation of marine resources, biodiversity is being severely affected.

Biodiversity in India

India is of great importance in terms of biodiversity in South Asia. India is surrounded by the Himalayas in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Due to the variation in climate and land size of different regions in India, biodiversity in India is very high. Due to the difference in size and ecosystem, this site is rich in area. India is one of the different regions of the world. India is also included in a total of 17 vastly diverse regions of the world. India is one of the most hotspot areas in terms of hotspot areas in the world.
India is among the top 10 countries in the world and 4 in Asia in terms of biodiversity. India is a very rich region in terms of species of organisms, as far as scientific knowledge and classification have been done in India. According to a report released in the year 2000 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, there were 81000 species of districts in India. At present, according to the IUCN, which 91000 species of animals are now found in India. In terms of species, India is the leader in the number of mammals, birds, reptiles. In terms of local species, India has an abundance of insects, sea worms, fresh aquatic sponges, centipedes. India has an abundance of endemic species of large vertebrate animals. India has a leading position in terms of the world’s largest mammal species.

Biodiversity in India is more visible in wild trees and fauna. India is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of agricultural land. Apart from various crops and plantation agriculture, domestic useful trees are planted here, apart from this about 47500 species of plants are found in India. India is very rich in the number of species of flowering plants.

India is home to about 6% of the world’s total flowering plants, with the remaining 7% being plant species. The total area of ​​India is 32.87 lakh square kilometers, out of which only forests are found on 24.01%. India has a range of tropical evergreen forests to temperate and coniferous forests, apart from thorny shrubs and trees in areas with low rainfall.
Indian natural vegetation has undergone drastic changes due to many reasons. Due to the need for more areas for agriculture and fodder for livestock, the forest area is decreasing due to the development of industries and cities. Forest is a renewable resource, it enhances the quality of the environment and the local climate controls soil erosion and streams of rivers. Forests are the basis of industries and contribute to enriching biodiversity by providing livelihood to many communities.

Different Biodiversity Zones of India

India is a country with huge biodiversity. Due to the greater variation in the environmental conditions of its different regions, more diversity is seen in the fauna and flora. Sometimes the biodiversity is very high, sometimes it is very low, sometimes there are a large number of local species of animals and sometimes the species have very high characteristics and affinity. Following are the major regions of India in terms of biodiversity:

1. Major Hotspot Areas of India
2. Marine Biodiversity Zone
3. Bio-geographical region of India

Major Hotspot Areas of India

Some of the biodiversity areas of the world where species diversity is found are called hotspot areas. There are 35 hotspot areas in the world, which accounts for 2.3% of the world’s total area and 60% of the world’s species are found in these areas. These are biodiversity rich areas. The term police staff hotspot was first used by Norman Myers in 1988. In the list of these diverse areas of the world, there are four regions of India which are biodiversity rich areas-

A. Indo Burma region
B. Himalayan region
C. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
D. Sunderland Region (Nicobar Islands)

As a biodiversity hotspot, India occupies an important place in the global biodiversity. The hotspot areas under the political landscape of India include 64.95% of the Western Ghats hotspot area, Indo Burma 5.13%, Himalayan region 44.37% and Sunderland hotspot area 1.28%. However, protected areas comprise less than 17% of these hotspot areas, well short of the Aichi target set under the Biodiversity Convention 2010.

Climate change and increasing constraints by humans are major factors in forest destruction and extinction of species. According to analysis of global human population data, the highest human population density is found in hotspot areas located in the tropics. While the highest human population density among all global hotspot areas is in the Western Ghats of India at 300 persons per km.

The local rate of global warming in the Himalayan region is higher than the global rate. This Himalayan hotspot can cause species extinction on many of the local flora in the region. Because the polarity of species and polarities is not possible due to the constraints of site shapes. Most of the vegetation cover of the Indo Burma Hotspot region represents high-level forest fragmentation.

The Kakashi part of the Andaman and Nicobar forest area has been destroyed due to recent disasters like the Indian Ocean tsunami. The vegetation of these hotspot areas is being severely affected due to fire, drought etc. in forests encroached by invasive species.
Marine Biodiversity Area | Biodiversity in India
The coastline of India is 7516.6 km wide. Marine Biodiversity Areas include various mangrove estuary coral reefs where the abundance of fauna species is found due to the favorable conditions of environmental biodiversity. Many species of coral are found here in the world. Marine biodiversity is abundant in mollusks, crests, polychaetes and coral species. Many species of mangroves and sea grass are also found here.
Bio-geographical region of India. Biodiversity in India
The biogeographic region consists of regions characterized by the characteristics and distribution of animal and plant species in other regions of the world. Variations in species and their ecosystems are due to variations in the gradient of latitudes, changes in geographic area, variation in habitat environment, etc. There is a great deal of variation in species and their habitats, as well as in climates that are variable relative to climate.


Variety of flora and fauna species are found due to the variation in the climate of the vegetation zones of India. From the point of view of biodiversity, there are 10 bio-geographical regions of India, which differ in climate, landforms, soil etc.

Trans Himalayan Region

This region is extremely cold and dry. Here only alpine species are found in the flora. Stones and icebergs are found in most of the area. Animals include wild sheep and goats, snow leopards, marble-coloured cats, marmots and black-necked swans.

Himalayan region

The density of vegetation is high in the eastern Himalayas due to high rainfall and proximity to the equator, while the density of vegetation is low in the western Himalayas. Many cases of vegetation have developed in the Himalayan region due to the decrease in temperature with the increase in altitude. With the increase in altitude, the Himalayan range has tropical forests from it to tundra vegetation. From the point of view of biodiversity, differences are found in the trunk of all these plants.
Due to favorable climatic conditions in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas, there is an increase in the number of species of fauna and flora. Large trees and mammals are found here. Snow leopards, brown bears are found in the main animals here. Due to HIM and landslides and environmental pollution, the major species here are endangered and going extinct.
Indian desert | Biodiversity in India
Apart from many endemic species of reptiles and birds, the region has the largest number of insect species. The blackbuck, one of the major species of the Indian desert, is an impressive species of mammal, which is now endangered. Nilgai, wild donkey is the special animal here. Chinkara, desert fox, desert cat, great Indian bustard, flamingo etc. are endemic to the Kutch desert.

semi arid region

This area has been a famous area for Asiatic lions. The region’s endemic species are the Song region lions. A lot of stone dwelling areas are found here. It is an area surrounded by grass and euphorbia bushes. Tropical dermal forests are found in natural vegetation. Wet forests and mangrove forests are also found in this region. where many flora are endemic.

Western Ghats

It is a highly biodiverse region of India and is listed as a hotspot. The region ranges from evergreen forests to dry deciduous forests. And many species of temperate vegetation are found in mountainous areas. The major fauna of this area are Tiger, Nilgiris, Langur, Lion, Malabari, Brown Hornbill. The species of amphibians found on the Western Ghats are found in many endemic species. The flying squirrel, the lion-tailed macaque is a unique and endemic species here.

Deccan Peninsular Region

The Deccan Peninsular region is bounded by the Satpuras in the north, the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east. This area is surrounded by rivers. The major rivers here are Tapti, Narmada, Mahanadi and Godavari. The Narmada and the Tapti flow west and fall into the Arabian Sea. The Mahanadi, the Godavari flows east and drains into the Bay of Bengal. There is an abundance of fertile black and red soils. Tropical Forests Tropical dry forests are found in the region extending from north central to southern plateau region. The animals found here are tigers, bears, wild boar, gaur, sambar, chital and wild buffalo elephants and deer in a wide area.

Gangetic plains

The Gangetic plain is one of the most fertile regions of India. It is classified into four parts on the basis of soil fertility, where there is abundance of crop species in fauna, flora and fauna. These are 4 parts – Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar. This area is very important from the point of view of fertility and agricultural production. The Gangetic plain extends from Rajasthan to the agricultural region in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Mangrove forests are found in its south eastern region. The major animals found here are elephants, blackbucks, Indian rhinoceros, freshwater crocodiles and turtles and a variety of fishes.

coastal area

The coastal region spread over a wide area of ​​India is highly diverse. Natural vegetation is abundant in mangrove forest areas. Among the animal species are dolphins and crocodiles, dugongs, avifauna. Turtles living in clear water and many species of fish living in sea water are found here. The Sundarbans along the Bay of Bengal along the eastern coast have the highest number of Royal Bengal tigers.

North East Region

Biodiversity is found in abundance in the North Eastern region of India. The region is very rich in terms of tropical flora. Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, moist deciduous monsoon forests, grasslands and swamps are found here. Bamboo, jackfruit, tuna chestnut are abundant here.

Indian island territory

This region of the Indian subcontinent is a group of 572 islands. This region extends to the north of the Andaman Islands and to the south of the Nicobar Islands. This area is divided by a 10 degree channel. Of these 572 islands, 36 are habitable. This area is of great importance from the point of view of biodiversity. Some special species of the world are found here like dolphin, jackfruit, coconut, mollusks etc. Coral reefs are spread over 11000 sq km in Andaman Islands and 2700 sq km in Nicobar Islands. Here there is an abundance of trees of tall squares and many such trees are found which are used as medicine. For example, the Behra tree, which is often used in medicine, is found in the region. Medicines are made from its bark.

5 Key Values ​​of Biodiversity

In this article we will learn about the value of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity. All the organisms found on earth are highly variable based on their habitat and properties, which are very helpful in maintaining the existence of humans. Human beings directly or indirectly benefit from biodiversity. Human beings get food from flora and fauna, resources needed for habitat, clothing, medicines, rubber, wood etc. as well as the resources needed for scientific research and innovation. Biodiversity is the basis of life on earth, rich in biodiversity helps in keeping the ecosystem healthy and balanced.

Biodiversity has the following value-

1. Producer Source

Biodiversity leads to the production of a large number of products, from which direct and indirect economic benefits are earned. New improved species are obtained from biodiversity by different method of seeds of organic fertilizer crops to increase the production capacity of soil for humans. There are many plant species in the world from which to prepare food, but humans still produce less than an estimated 20% of plant species. These 20% of species obtain food from about 50% of the world’s human population. Among agricultural plant species, especially wheat and maize rice, millet pulses provide two-thirds of the food humans need to survive. Some species are produced commercially and local species are protected by creating new species by crossbreeding with developed and productive species to increase their production efficiency.

2. Medicines

In the world there is an abundance of such producers that have therapeutic properties. There are about 5000 species of medicinal and herbs found in other regions of the world like India, due to which many diseases have been treated for centuries. Medicines for complex diseases like cancer are made from pain relievers, herbal preparations related to the treatment of malaria. Morphine in pain relievers is made from the herb, for the manufacture of the drug Taxol for cancer and many antibiotics made using microorganisms. About 25% of the world’s medicines are made up of only 120 species. Medicinal plants are available in different regions of the world. Most of the medicinal plants are found in equatorial regions and tropical rain forests.

3. Importance of Beauty

Man has always got flowers and fruits from nature. Man today is promoting the protection of animals, birds or trees through zoos to promote eco-tourism and preserve their natural beauty through botanical gardens. Man has been related to animal husbandry for centuries. These animals, birds and trees have always influenced their lives. Man has been giving cultural importance to Tulsi and Peepal trees since ancient times. Human existence has always been associated with these species of biodiversity.

4. Significance of Social or Ecosystem

The decline in biodiversity directly affects social life. Biodiversity keeps the ecosystem healthy and stable. Today, problems like global warming and acid rain have arisen due to the decline in biodiversity. Maintenance is necessary to maintain the sustainable use of all the substances derived from biodiversity. Biodiversity is the basis of life. Which is very important for maintaining life on earth.

5. Importance of Biodiversity in Agriculture

Biodiversity is the source of genetic material of agriculture which is extremely important for the future of agriculture. Agricultural biodiversity strengthens the agricultural ecosystem and nurtures all species by increasing production efficiency. The species’ dependence has been on agriculture for centuries. About 940 species of agriculture are threatened by pollution due to diseases and other causes. Conservation of agricultural biodiversity is of utmost importance for the balance of life and ecosystem. Agricultural biodiversity can be preserved through academic research, education and monitoring.

significant threats to biodiversity

Climate change is increasing the level of pollution due to the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources by humans, thereby creating habitats of different species, due to which many species have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. The increase in air and water pollution has caused many diseases and these diseases have greatly affected the biodiversity, resulting in extreme loss of biodiversity.

Many natural disasters are affecting biodiversity today due to the loss of grasslands that tower over excessive forests. Sometimes, due to natural calamities, the entire habitat and species of the bio-community are destroyed. Rising temperatures threaten to police top marine biodiversity. Due to pollution, sea water is becoming more saline, due to which species of ungulates found in it are at risk.

Many toxic substances and oils are released into the sea during the construction of coastal engineering, which are negatively affecting biodiversity. Due to pollution in sea water and river water, the vegetation found in the soil of the sea and river is not able to reach the light, as a result of which these flora have disappeared and the animals and vegetation dependent on them have reached a critical condition. . The main reason for the loss of biodiversity in India is water and air pollution, which threatens 79 of India’s mammals, 44 of 44 reptiles and 3 species of amphibians.

The following are the reasons for the degradation of biodiversity:

1. Destruction of Habitats

In the process of indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources, human beings have negatively affected forest wetland area, grasslands etc., destroyed species habitats and put many species at risk. Industrial development, road construction, building construction, plowing of grassland for agriculture, increased agricultural area, deforestation and forest fires destroy the habitats of the species, forcing the species to leave their habitat. Due to the change in the natural habitat, these species are struggling to protect themselves. This is the reason that thousands of species of flora and fauna are becoming extinct day by day.

2. Entry of Exotic Species

In any area, if it enters a species from another area through various means, it affects the native species there. Due to its high fertility under its influence, it quickly gains control over a particular area, which endangers the local species and this species becomes extinct over a period of time. For example, during the 1966 Parliament in India, imported wheat was also accompanied by a weed known as Congress grass or Parthenium hysterophorus or American weed. This grass replaced the Funia grass tree species causing a local ecological crisis and which greatly affects the insects and crops that depend on the plant.

Hyacinth is commonly seen in ponds and lakes in India, which, due to its complexity in its composition and excessive immunity, obstructs the elements of jubilee and ponds and poses a threat to aquatic species. Due to which the ponds, flora and fauna living in those districts are not able to reach the tissue light. Plants make their own food by photosynthesis in the presence of light and other organisms depend on these primary producing plants. As vegetation becomes endangered, so do other species that depend on it.

3. Pollution

Human-made barriers and natural barriers vary greatly in intensity, rate and area expansion. Due to the destruction of forests by humans, species can survive in other habitats as well, but due to pollution, both air and water become contaminated, affecting a large area. Vulnerable species are rapidly becoming extinct due to polluted air and acid rain. Pollution affects the entire habitat area and society due to which species are destroyed. For example, the rapid extinction of organisms on small fish reflects the effects of pollution. Oil spills and spills in the ocean affect a large number of marine life species and kill vulnerable species.

4. Population Growth and Poverty

At present, the total population of the world is about 7 largest and every year 8 to 90 million people are joining it. As the population increases, the pressure on natural resources is also increasing. About 40% of the world’s population still lives below the poverty line, basically dependent on natural resources. Biodiversity is being lost due to human encroachment into the areas of other species to meet their needs.

5. Natural Causes

The existence of biodiversity is also in danger due to increase in natural calamities, death. Earthquakes Volcanoes Landslides Many species of flora outside the Forest Act are on the verge of extinction due to diseases. Natural disasters play a role in the fragmentation of natural habitats leading to endemic species, which affects the production rate of biodiversity.

6. Other Major Reasons

Poaching and smuggling of animals affects biodiversity. In the process of filling the land with water, many species get displaced in the process of removing that water. Biodiversity is affected by the expansion of agricultural areas. Biodiversity is also affected due to the destruction of coastal areas and climate change.

The post 5 Main Value of Biodiversity | 5 Key Values ​​of Biodiversity appeared first on WebHindi.

Nowadays many people are also earning a lot of money by investing in the stock market. But some people also lose all their money by investing in share market, so whenever you think of investing in share market, first of all you should know how to invest in share market or how to buy shares, What are the types of trading? In this article, you will be told about delivery trading, which is a way to invest in the stock market, so let’s see what is delivery trading? What are the things to keep in mind while trading delivery? What are the advantages and disadvantages of delivery trading?

What is Delivery Trading?

Delivery trading is a way of investing in the stock market, you can also call delivery trading as investment. That is, it is your long-term investment in a type of stock market. Delivery trading means that when you buy shares of a company, you hold it for a long time. That time could be a month, 1 year, 10 years, 20 years.

In this type of trading, when you buy a share, that share gets transferred to your demat account. And your shares are safe in the demat account, you can sell your shares whenever you want by withdrawing them from the demat account. Whenever you feel it is appropriate that I will profit from selling this share now, then you can sell that share, thus delivery trading means buying a share and holding it for a long time.

Thus, in delivery trading, you buy the shares of a company, hold it and sell it at the appropriate time.

If you want to know how to learn share market then this post of ours will be helpful for you.

What are the things to keep in mind while trading delivery?

  • While doing delivery trading, the first thing we should keep in mind is that we should not buy our shares of any one company because it may happen that if we do not get profit from that company, then we should buy shares of different company. If there is no profit from one company, it may be from the other, thus one should never buy shares of one company. Divide your shares by buying shares of different companies, you are more likely to get profit.
  • The second most important thing to keep in mind is to be patient and hold your stock for a long time. If a company is doing well, then it will do well in future, hold your shares with this positive thinking. You are likely to get more profit from this. The main purpose of doing delivery trading is that you keep your shares with you for a long time.
  • The third most important thing is that when you buy shares of a company, what is the price of that share at the time of buying? So you buy shares of a company when its price is too low, and sell the shares of that company when its price is too high. If you buy the stock at a cheaper price and sell it at a much higher price, then your profit is also very high.
  • Whenever you buy shares of a company, fundamental analysis about that company means that what has been the performance of that company over the years? And what will happen next? With better strategy you should buy shares and with the same strategy you should sell shares. If you buy or sell shares without any strategy, then it becomes like a gamble.

You should make a strategy and then buy and sell the shares, this will make your profit more.

What are the benefits of delivery trading?

  • The first advantage of delivery trading is that you can hold your shares for a long time. You do not need to sell the shares immediately after buying them. In this, you can keep your shares for 1 year, 2 years, 10 years for as long as you think is appropriate.
  • Delivery trading is much preferred by new investors. Because in this you do not need to have much experience of stock market / stock market. Even if you are a new investor in the share market / stock market, you can start your trading with delivery trading. You have bought a share and it is safe in your demat account. You don’t need a lot of experience to sell it when the time is right. And it is not a very difficult task. Even a completely new investor can do this.
  • Delivery trading is much safer than other trading because when you buy shares of a company, it gets transferred to your demat account. And until you withdraw it from your demat account, it remains safe there. So in delivery trading the safety is higher and the probability of loss is less as compared to other trading.

What are the disadvantages of delivery trading?

  • Depository participant charge is levied in delivery trading which reduces the profit of investors Depository participant charge means that the depositories in which we have demat account and in those demat account is secured by us, then for the security of those set by us by the depository. Some fee is charged which is called Depository Participant Charge.
  • There are two depositories in India (1) Central Depository Service Limited (CDSL) (2) National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL), ₹ 5.50 paise is charged by CDSL. Depository charge is charged, NSDL charges ₹ 4.50 paise Is.
  • In addition to the Depository Participant charge, through the brokerage we keep our city safe in the demat account, we are also charged for the same by those brokerages which also reduces our profits. As brokerage charges ₹8 are charged by ZERODHA and with this we also have to pay 18% GST. The brokerage fee charged by Upstox is ₹ 13 and we have to pay 18% GST along with it.

So thus we see that the biggest disadvantage of delivery trading is that it charges a fee to secure our shares in a demat account. So whatever profit we get from this, we have to see the fee after deducting it, then our profit is less.

Conclusion – What is Delivery Trading?

Hope this post was helpful for you. And hope you do delivery trading now? What are the things to keep in mind while trading delivery? What are the advantages and disadvantages of delivery trading? Would have known We appreciate your suggestions and contributions. Do let us know by commenting in the comment box below to give your suggestions. thank you!


What are the types of trading?

There are four types of trading such as – scalping trading, intraday trading, swing trading, positional trading.

What is the difference between delivery and intraday?

In intraday trading, shares are bought and sold on the same day, whereas in delivery trading the shares are held for a longer period of time.