Biodiversity Hotspots in India
In this article, we will learn about the biodiversity hotspots in India. India has an important place in terms of biodiversity. India covers 2.4% of the total area of the world. More than 8% of the world’s biodiversity is found here. There are total 4 hotspot areas in India, out of which two hotspot areas are located in the most hotspot areas of the world. Sunderland was declared a hotspot area by the United Nations in 2013, which includes the Nankauri Islands, including the Nicobar Islands of Trinket.
Following are the biodiversity hotspots in India-
- Biodiversity Hotspots in India
- Himalayan region
- Indo Burma Region
- Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Region
- Sunderland (Nankuri Islands, which includes Trinquet, Great Nicobar Islands)
- Himalayan Hotspot
The Eastern Himalayan Hotspot is spread over the areas of North-Central India, South Central and East Nepal and Bhutan. Geographically, it is the highest place in the world in terms of area. Everest and Mount K2 are the highest peaks in the world. It is a very important area from the point of view of biodiversity. Evergreen forests are found here due to excessive rainfall. Due to favorable conditions in terms of rainfall and temperature, the fauna here has an abundance of endemic species of trees and plants. It is heavily affected due to the widening of the hotspot area. Here some species are also found at higher altitudes such as Circhesteraceae, Butomaceae and Stachyuraceae are endemic species.
Pygmyhog, Golden Langur, Himalayan Tahr, Langur, Asiatic Wild Dog, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Muntjac, Sambar, Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Blue Sheep, Takin, Ganges Dolphin, Underwater Buffalo, Swamp Deer, Himalayan Fauna. The Namdapha flying squirrel is a highly endangered local animal found in the Namdapha National Park.
Indo Burma Hotspot
The Indo Burma Hotspot region is spread over several countries. Whose area extends from eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia. Or the north eastern region of India, the southern part of the Brahmaputra river, extending from Myanmar, to the Greece region of southern China. Apart from this, it is also spread in the areas of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand.
The hotspot area of Indo Burma is surrounded by highly forested areas, but due to environmental imbalance and human encroachment, these forest areas are shrinking, affecting the endemic species of the region. Many species like monkey, langur and gibbon are found in this area. let’s go. Species of freshwater turtles, which are endemic species, are found in large numbers. Ginger is an endemic species of the region. Apart from this, many species of birds are also found here. The endangered white-eared night heron, gray crown crosia and orange-naked petri are endemic species that are now on the verge of extinction.
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Hotspot
The hotspot region extends to southwestern India and the southwestern highlands region of Sri Lanka. The Western Ghats of India are mostly mountainous regions. Due to excessive rainfall, rain forests and moist deciduous forests are found here. Due to the conditions here for the development of flora and fauna, abundance of biodiversity is found. The Western Ghats locally bring the Sahyadri mountain peaks, which include the Malabar plains and mountain ranges.
There are about 6000 species of plants, of which 3000 are endemic. There is a lot of talk of population in this area. Evergreen forests Rain forests are found in the Sri Lankan region. Some special species like Asian elephant, Nilgiris, Tahr, Indian tiger, lion tail monkey, large sized squirrel are also found here.
The Sunderland Hotspot region extends to the western part of the Indo Malaya Islands located in Southeast Asia. The United Nations declared the Sunderland Hotspot region a world reserve biosphere in 2013. It is a very important region in terms of land and marine biodiversity. Important flora and fauna species are found naturally in this area. Special species like coral, whale, dugong, tortoise, crocodile, fish etc. are found. Due to over-exploitation of marine resources, biodiversity is being severely affected.