Biodiversity Hotspots in India

In this article, we will learn about the biodiversity hotspots in India. India has an important place in terms of biodiversity. India covers 2.4% of the total area of ​​the world. More than 8% of the world’s biodiversity is found here. There are total 4 hotspot areas in India, out of which two hotspot areas are located in the most hotspot areas of the world. Sunderland was declared a hotspot area by the United Nations in 2013, which includes the Nankauri Islands, including the Nicobar Islands of Trinket.

Biodiversity hotspots in India

Following are the biodiversity hotspots in India-

  1. Biodiversity Hotspots in India
  2. Himalayan region
  3. Indo Burma Region
  4. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Region
  5. Sunderland (Nankuri Islands, which includes Trinquet, Great Nicobar Islands)
  6. Himalayan Hotspot

The Eastern Himalayan Hotspot is spread over the areas of North-Central India, South Central and East Nepal and Bhutan. Geographically, it is the highest place in the world in terms of area. Everest and Mount K2 are the highest peaks in the world. It is a very important area from the point of view of biodiversity. Evergreen forests are found here due to excessive rainfall. Due to favorable conditions in terms of rainfall and temperature, the fauna here has an abundance of endemic species of trees and plants. It is heavily affected due to the widening of the hotspot area. Here some species are also found at higher altitudes such as Circhesteraceae, Butomaceae and Stachyuraceae are endemic species.
Pygmyhog, Golden Langur, Himalayan Tahr, Langur, Asiatic Wild Dog, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Muntjac, Sambar, Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Blue Sheep, Takin, Ganges Dolphin, Underwater Buffalo, Swamp Deer, Himalayan Fauna. The Namdapha flying squirrel is a highly endangered local animal found in the Namdapha National Park.

Indo Burma Hotspot

The Indo Burma Hotspot region is spread over several countries. Whose area extends from eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia. Or the north eastern region of India, the southern part of the Brahmaputra river, extending from Myanmar, to the Greece region of southern China. Apart from this, it is also spread in the areas of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand.
The hotspot area of ​​Indo Burma is surrounded by highly forested areas, but due to environmental imbalance and human encroachment, these forest areas are shrinking, affecting the endemic species of the region. Many species like monkey, langur and gibbon are found in this area. let’s go. Species of freshwater turtles, which are endemic species, are found in large numbers. Ginger is an endemic species of the region. Apart from this, many species of birds are also found here. The endangered white-eared night heron, gray crown crosia and orange-naked petri are endemic species that are now on the verge of extinction.

Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Hotspot

The hotspot region extends to southwestern India and the southwestern highlands region of Sri Lanka. The Western Ghats of India are mostly mountainous regions. Due to excessive rainfall, rain forests and moist deciduous forests are found here. Due to the conditions here for the development of flora and fauna, abundance of biodiversity is found. The Western Ghats locally bring the Sahyadri mountain peaks, which include the Malabar plains and mountain ranges.

There are about 6000 species of plants, of which 3000 are endemic. There is a lot of talk of population in this area. Evergreen forests Rain forests are found in the Sri Lankan region. Some special species like Asian elephant, Nilgiris, Tahr, Indian tiger, lion tail monkey, large sized squirrel are also found here.

Sunderland Hotspot

The Sunderland Hotspot region extends to the western part of the Indo Malaya Islands located in Southeast Asia. The United Nations declared the Sunderland Hotspot region a world reserve biosphere in 2013. It is a very important region in terms of land and marine biodiversity. Important flora and fauna species are found naturally in this area. Special species like coral, whale, dugong, tortoise, crocodile, fish etc. are found. Due to over-exploitation of marine resources, biodiversity is being severely affected.

Biodiversity in India

India is of great importance in terms of biodiversity in South Asia. India is surrounded by the Himalayas in the north, the Indian Ocean in the south, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Due to the variation in climate and land size of different regions in India, biodiversity in India is very high. Due to the difference in size and ecosystem, this site is rich in area. India is one of the different regions of the world. India is also included in a total of 17 vastly diverse regions of the world. India is one of the most hotspot areas in terms of hotspot areas in the world.
India is among the top 10 countries in the world and 4 in Asia in terms of biodiversity. India is a very rich region in terms of species of organisms, as far as scientific knowledge and classification have been done in India. According to a report released in the year 2000 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, there were 81000 species of districts in India. At present, according to the IUCN, which 91000 species of animals are now found in India. In terms of species, India is the leader in the number of mammals, birds, reptiles. In terms of local species, India has an abundance of insects, sea worms, fresh aquatic sponges, centipedes. India has an abundance of endemic species of large vertebrate animals. India has a leading position in terms of the world’s largest mammal species.

Biodiversity in India is more visible in wild trees and fauna. India is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of agricultural land. Apart from various crops and plantation agriculture, domestic useful trees are planted here, apart from this about 47500 species of plants are found in India. India is very rich in the number of species of flowering plants.

India is home to about 6% of the world’s total flowering plants, with the remaining 7% being plant species. The total area of ​​India is 32.87 lakh square kilometers, out of which only forests are found on 24.01%. India has a range of tropical evergreen forests to temperate and coniferous forests, apart from thorny shrubs and trees in areas with low rainfall.
Indian natural vegetation has undergone drastic changes due to many reasons. Due to the need for more areas for agriculture and fodder for livestock, the forest area is decreasing due to the development of industries and cities. Forest is a renewable resource, it enhances the quality of the environment and the local climate controls soil erosion and streams of rivers. Forests are the basis of industries and contribute to enriching biodiversity by providing livelihood to many communities.

Different Biodiversity Zones of India

India is a country with huge biodiversity. Due to the greater variation in the environmental conditions of its different regions, more diversity is seen in the fauna and flora. Sometimes the biodiversity is very high, sometimes it is very low, sometimes there are a large number of local species of animals and sometimes the species have very high characteristics and affinity. Following are the major regions of India in terms of biodiversity:

1. Major Hotspot Areas of India
2. Marine Biodiversity Zone
3. Bio-geographical region of India

Major Hotspot Areas of India

Some of the biodiversity areas of the world where species diversity is found are called hotspot areas. There are 35 hotspot areas in the world, which accounts for 2.3% of the world’s total area and 60% of the world’s species are found in these areas. These are biodiversity rich areas. The term police staff hotspot was first used by Norman Myers in 1988. In the list of these diverse areas of the world, there are four regions of India which are biodiversity rich areas-

A. Indo Burma region
B. Himalayan region
C. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
D. Sunderland Region (Nicobar Islands)

As a biodiversity hotspot, India occupies an important place in the global biodiversity. The hotspot areas under the political landscape of India include 64.95% of the Western Ghats hotspot area, Indo Burma 5.13%, Himalayan region 44.37% and Sunderland hotspot area 1.28%. However, protected areas comprise less than 17% of these hotspot areas, well short of the Aichi target set under the Biodiversity Convention 2010.

Climate change and increasing constraints by humans are major factors in forest destruction and extinction of species. According to analysis of global human population data, the highest human population density is found in hotspot areas located in the tropics. While the highest human population density among all global hotspot areas is in the Western Ghats of India at 300 persons per km.

The local rate of global warming in the Himalayan region is higher than the global rate. This Himalayan hotspot can cause species extinction on many of the local flora in the region. Because the polarity of species and polarities is not possible due to the constraints of site shapes. Most of the vegetation cover of the Indo Burma Hotspot region represents high-level forest fragmentation.

The Kakashi part of the Andaman and Nicobar forest area has been destroyed due to recent disasters like the Indian Ocean tsunami. The vegetation of these hotspot areas is being severely affected due to fire, drought etc. in forests encroached by invasive species.
Marine Biodiversity Area | Biodiversity in India
The coastline of India is 7516.6 km wide. Marine Biodiversity Areas include various mangrove estuary coral reefs where the abundance of fauna species is found due to the favorable conditions of environmental biodiversity. Many species of coral are found here in the world. Marine biodiversity is abundant in mollusks, crests, polychaetes and coral species. Many species of mangroves and sea grass are also found here.
Bio-geographical region of India. Biodiversity in India
The biogeographic region consists of regions characterized by the characteristics and distribution of animal and plant species in other regions of the world. Variations in species and their ecosystems are due to variations in the gradient of latitudes, changes in geographic area, variation in habitat environment, etc. There is a great deal of variation in species and their habitats, as well as in climates that are variable relative to climate.


Variety of flora and fauna species are found due to the variation in the climate of the vegetation zones of India. From the point of view of biodiversity, there are 10 bio-geographical regions of India, which differ in climate, landforms, soil etc.

Trans Himalayan Region

This region is extremely cold and dry. Here only alpine species are found in the flora. Stones and icebergs are found in most of the area. Animals include wild sheep and goats, snow leopards, marble-coloured cats, marmots and black-necked swans.

Himalayan region

The density of vegetation is high in the eastern Himalayas due to high rainfall and proximity to the equator, while the density of vegetation is low in the western Himalayas. Many cases of vegetation have developed in the Himalayan region due to the decrease in temperature with the increase in altitude. With the increase in altitude, the Himalayan range has tropical forests from it to tundra vegetation. From the point of view of biodiversity, differences are found in the trunk of all these plants.
Due to favorable climatic conditions in the mountainous regions of the Himalayas, there is an increase in the number of species of fauna and flora. Large trees and mammals are found here. Snow leopards, brown bears are found in the main animals here. Due to HIM and landslides and environmental pollution, the major species here are endangered and going extinct.
Indian desert | Biodiversity in India
Apart from many endemic species of reptiles and birds, the region has the largest number of insect species. The blackbuck, one of the major species of the Indian desert, is an impressive species of mammal, which is now endangered. Nilgai, wild donkey is the special animal here. Chinkara, desert fox, desert cat, great Indian bustard, flamingo etc. are endemic to the Kutch desert.

semi arid region

This area has been a famous area for Asiatic lions. The region’s endemic species are the Song region lions. A lot of stone dwelling areas are found here. It is an area surrounded by grass and euphorbia bushes. Tropical dermal forests are found in natural vegetation. Wet forests and mangrove forests are also found in this region. where many flora are endemic.

Western Ghats

It is a highly biodiverse region of India and is listed as a hotspot. The region ranges from evergreen forests to dry deciduous forests. And many species of temperate vegetation are found in mountainous areas. The major fauna of this area are Tiger, Nilgiris, Langur, Lion, Malabari, Brown Hornbill. The species of amphibians found on the Western Ghats are found in many endemic species. The flying squirrel, the lion-tailed macaque is a unique and endemic species here.

Deccan Peninsular Region

The Deccan Peninsular region is bounded by the Satpuras in the north, the Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the east. This area is surrounded by rivers. The major rivers here are Tapti, Narmada, Mahanadi and Godavari. The Narmada and the Tapti flow west and fall into the Arabian Sea. The Mahanadi, the Godavari flows east and drains into the Bay of Bengal. There is an abundance of fertile black and red soils. Tropical Forests Tropical dry forests are found in the region extending from north central to southern plateau region. The animals found here are tigers, bears, wild boar, gaur, sambar, chital and wild buffalo elephants and deer in a wide area.

Gangetic plains

The Gangetic plain is one of the most fertile regions of India. It is classified into four parts on the basis of soil fertility, where there is abundance of crop species in fauna, flora and fauna. These are 4 parts – Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Khadar. This area is very important from the point of view of fertility and agricultural production. The Gangetic plain extends from Rajasthan to the agricultural region in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Mangrove forests are found in its south eastern region. The major animals found here are elephants, blackbucks, Indian rhinoceros, freshwater crocodiles and turtles and a variety of fishes.

coastal area

The coastal region spread over a wide area of ​​India is highly diverse. Natural vegetation is abundant in mangrove forest areas. Among the animal species are dolphins and crocodiles, dugongs, avifauna. Turtles living in clear water and many species of fish living in sea water are found here. The Sundarbans along the Bay of Bengal along the eastern coast have the highest number of Royal Bengal tigers.

North East Region

Biodiversity is found in abundance in the North Eastern region of India. The region is very rich in terms of tropical flora. Evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, moist deciduous monsoon forests, grasslands and swamps are found here. Bamboo, jackfruit, tuna chestnut are abundant here.

Indian island territory

This region of the Indian subcontinent is a group of 572 islands. This region extends to the north of the Andaman Islands and to the south of the Nicobar Islands. This area is divided by a 10 degree channel. Of these 572 islands, 36 are habitable. This area is of great importance from the point of view of biodiversity. Some special species of the world are found here like dolphin, jackfruit, coconut, mollusks etc. Coral reefs are spread over 11000 sq km in Andaman Islands and 2700 sq km in Nicobar Islands. Here there is an abundance of trees of tall squares and many such trees are found which are used as medicine. For example, the Behra tree, which is often used in medicine, is found in the region. Medicines are made from its bark.

5 Key Values ​​of Biodiversity

In this article we will learn about the value of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity. All the organisms found on earth are highly variable based on their habitat and properties, which are very helpful in maintaining the existence of humans. Human beings directly or indirectly benefit from biodiversity. Human beings get food from flora and fauna, resources needed for habitat, clothing, medicines, rubber, wood etc. as well as the resources needed for scientific research and innovation. Biodiversity is the basis of life on earth, rich in biodiversity helps in keeping the ecosystem healthy and balanced.

Biodiversity has the following value-

1. Producer Source

Biodiversity leads to the production of a large number of products, from which direct and indirect economic benefits are earned. New improved species are obtained from biodiversity by different method of seeds of organic fertilizer crops to increase the production capacity of soil for humans. There are many plant species in the world from which to prepare food, but humans still produce less than an estimated 20% of plant species. These 20% of species obtain food from about 50% of the world’s human population. Among agricultural plant species, especially wheat and maize rice, millet pulses provide two-thirds of the food humans need to survive. Some species are produced commercially and local species are protected by creating new species by crossbreeding with developed and productive species to increase their production efficiency.

2. Medicines

In the world there is an abundance of such producers that have therapeutic properties. There are about 5000 species of medicinal and herbs found in other regions of the world like India, due to which many diseases have been treated for centuries. Medicines for complex diseases like cancer are made from pain relievers, herbal preparations related to the treatment of malaria. Morphine in pain relievers is made from the herb, for the manufacture of the drug Taxol for cancer and many antibiotics made using microorganisms. About 25% of the world’s medicines are made up of only 120 species. Medicinal plants are available in different regions of the world. Most of the medicinal plants are found in equatorial regions and tropical rain forests.

3. Importance of Beauty

Man has always got flowers and fruits from nature. Man today is promoting the protection of animals, birds or trees through zoos to promote eco-tourism and preserve their natural beauty through botanical gardens. Man has been related to animal husbandry for centuries. These animals, birds and trees have always influenced their lives. Man has been giving cultural importance to Tulsi and Peepal trees since ancient times. Human existence has always been associated with these species of biodiversity.

4. Significance of Social or Ecosystem

The decline in biodiversity directly affects social life. Biodiversity keeps the ecosystem healthy and stable. Today, problems like global warming and acid rain have arisen due to the decline in biodiversity. Maintenance is necessary to maintain the sustainable use of all the substances derived from biodiversity. Biodiversity is the basis of life. Which is very important for maintaining life on earth.

5. Importance of Biodiversity in Agriculture

Biodiversity is the source of genetic material of agriculture which is extremely important for the future of agriculture. Agricultural biodiversity strengthens the agricultural ecosystem and nurtures all species by increasing production efficiency. The species’ dependence has been on agriculture for centuries. About 940 species of agriculture are threatened by pollution due to diseases and other causes. Conservation of agricultural biodiversity is of utmost importance for the balance of life and ecosystem. Agricultural biodiversity can be preserved through academic research, education and monitoring.

significant threats to biodiversity

Climate change is increasing the level of pollution due to the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources by humans, thereby creating habitats of different species, due to which many species have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. The increase in air and water pollution has caused many diseases and these diseases have greatly affected the biodiversity, resulting in extreme loss of biodiversity.

Many natural disasters are affecting biodiversity today due to the loss of grasslands that tower over excessive forests. Sometimes, due to natural calamities, the entire habitat and species of the bio-community are destroyed. Rising temperatures threaten to police top marine biodiversity. Due to pollution, sea water is becoming more saline, due to which species of ungulates found in it are at risk.

Many toxic substances and oils are released into the sea during the construction of coastal engineering, which are negatively affecting biodiversity. Due to pollution in sea water and river water, the vegetation found in the soil of the sea and river is not able to reach the light, as a result of which these flora have disappeared and the animals and vegetation dependent on them have reached a critical condition. . The main reason for the loss of biodiversity in India is water and air pollution, which threatens 79 of India’s mammals, 44 of 44 reptiles and 3 species of amphibians.

The following are the reasons for the degradation of biodiversity:

1. Destruction of Habitats

In the process of indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources, human beings have negatively affected forest wetland area, grasslands etc., destroyed species habitats and put many species at risk. Industrial development, road construction, building construction, plowing of grassland for agriculture, increased agricultural area, deforestation and forest fires destroy the habitats of the species, forcing the species to leave their habitat. Due to the change in the natural habitat, these species are struggling to protect themselves. This is the reason that thousands of species of flora and fauna are becoming extinct day by day.

2. Entry of Exotic Species

In any area, if it enters a species from another area through various means, it affects the native species there. Due to its high fertility under its influence, it quickly gains control over a particular area, which endangers the local species and this species becomes extinct over a period of time. For example, during the 1966 Parliament in India, imported wheat was also accompanied by a weed known as Congress grass or Parthenium hysterophorus or American weed. This grass replaced the Funia grass tree species causing a local ecological crisis and which greatly affects the insects and crops that depend on the plant.

Hyacinth is commonly seen in ponds and lakes in India, which, due to its complexity in its composition and excessive immunity, obstructs the elements of jubilee and ponds and poses a threat to aquatic species. Due to which the ponds, flora and fauna living in those districts are not able to reach the tissue light. Plants make their own food by photosynthesis in the presence of light and other organisms depend on these primary producing plants. As vegetation becomes endangered, so do other species that depend on it.

3. Pollution

Human-made barriers and natural barriers vary greatly in intensity, rate and area expansion. Due to the destruction of forests by humans, species can survive in other habitats as well, but due to pollution, both air and water become contaminated, affecting a large area. Vulnerable species are rapidly becoming extinct due to polluted air and acid rain. Pollution affects the entire habitat area and society due to which species are destroyed. For example, the rapid extinction of organisms on small fish reflects the effects of pollution. Oil spills and spills in the ocean affect a large number of marine life species and kill vulnerable species.

4. Population Growth and Poverty

At present, the total population of the world is about 7 largest and every year 8 to 90 million people are joining it. As the population increases, the pressure on natural resources is also increasing. About 40% of the world’s population still lives below the poverty line, basically dependent on natural resources. Biodiversity is being lost due to human encroachment into the areas of other species to meet their needs.

5. Natural Causes

The existence of biodiversity is also in danger due to increase in natural calamities, death. Earthquakes Volcanoes Landslides Many species of flora outside the Forest Act are on the verge of extinction due to diseases. Natural disasters play a role in the fragmentation of natural habitats leading to endemic species, which affects the production rate of biodiversity.

6. Other Major Reasons

Poaching and smuggling of animals affects biodiversity. In the process of filling the land with water, many species get displaced in the process of removing that water. Biodiversity is affected by the expansion of agricultural areas. Biodiversity is also affected due to the destruction of coastal areas and climate change.

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