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Description of Magadha Mahajanapada

  • In the 6th century BC, just before the birth of Lord Buddha, India was divided into 16 Mahajanapadas. We find mention of this in the ‘Anguttarnikaya’ of the Buddhist text. Among these 16 Mahajanapadas, Magadha was the most powerful Mahajanapada. Presently ‘Patna’ and ‘Gaya’ districts were included in this.
  • The first mention of the Magadha kingdom is found in the Atharvaveda. It was one of the powerful monarchies during the time of Lord Buddha, which later became the most powerful Mahajanapada of North India.
  • The Magadha Mahajanapada extended from the Ganges in the north to the Vindhya Mountains in the south and from Champa in the east to the Son River in the west.
  • The ancient capital of the Magadha Empire was ‘Rajgriha’, a city surrounded by five hills. Later the capital of Magadha Empire became ‘Pataliputra’ which is presently known as Patna.

Dynasties of Magadha Empire

  1. Haryanka dynasty (545 BC to 412 BC) | Haryak Dynasty (545 BC to 412 BC)-

  • Bimbisara- The most powerful and majestic king of the Haryanka dynasty was Bimbisara. The reign of Bimbisara was from 545 BC to 493 BC. He made Giribraj his capital. Bimbisara’s nickname was ‘Srenik’. Bimbisara’s wife Kosala was the sister of Devi Prasenjit, from whom he received the revenue of Kashi Nagar. His second wife ‘Chellana’ was the sister of Chetak, the Lichchavi chief of Vaishali. After this, he established the cooperation of the Madras by marrying Kshema, the princess of the country of Madra. The mention of his 500 wives is found in the Mahabagh. According to the Puranas, Bimbisara ruled for about 28 years. After meeting Buddha he converted to Buddhism and donated the garden named Beluvan to Buddha and Sangha. Bimbisara founded a new city named ‘Rajgriha’. At the last moment ‘Ajatashatru’ killed his father Bimbisara.
  • Ajatashatru- The reign of Ajatashatru was from 493 BC to 461 BC. Ajatashatru is also called ‘Kunik’. He ascended the throne of Magadha after killing his father Bimbisara. According to the Puranas, Ajatashatru ruled for 28 years while according to Buddhist evidence, he ruled for 32 years. At last Ajatashatru was murdered by his son.
  • Udayin- The reign of Udayin was from 461 BC to 445 BC. According to the Puranas and Samhitas, Udayin established a capital named ‘Pataliputra’ at the confluence of the Ganges and the Son River, which is presently known as ‘Patna’. According to the Puranas, Udayin ruled Pataliputra for 33 years and for the Mahavansh. Udayin was a follower of Jainism. According to Buddhist literature, after Udayin, Anuruddha, Munda and Nagadasaka ruled together till about 412 BC. In this, all three are called Pitruhanta.

2. Shishunaga Dynasty (412 BC to 344 BC) Shishunag Dynasty (412 BC to 344 BC)

  • Shishunag- Shishunaga of the Shishunaga dynasty conquered Avanti and Vatsa Raj in the Magadha Empire and merged it with Magadha, due to which the Magadha Empire expanded from Malwa to Bengal in North India. He made Vaishali his capital.
  • Kalashoka or Kakavarna- The reign of Kalashoka was from 394 BC to 344 BC. In the Puranas, another name for Kalashoka is found Kakavarna. He made ‘Pataliputra’ his capital in place of Vaishali. According to the Sihali epic, in 383 BC, 100 years after the Mahaparinirvana of Lord Buddha, the second Buddhist council was held in Vaishali during the reign of Kalashoka, in which the Buddhist sangha was divided into sthavira and mahasanghik. According to Deepvansh and Mahavansh, Kalashok ruled for about 28 years. The last ruler of this dynasty was probably Nandivardhana, whose successor was Mahanandin. Mahapadmanand established the Nanda dynasty by killing it.

3. Nanda Dynasty (344 BC to 322 BC) Nanda Dynasty (344 BC to 322 BC)

  • According to the Puranas, Mahapadmananda, the founder of the Nanda dynasty, was a Shudra ruler. According to Jain texts, Napit was the son of father and Vaishya was the son of mother. In the essential formula, he is called the Napit Das, he is called Napit Das, that is, the slave of the barber. In the Mahavansh commentary, he is said to be of an unknown clan. In the Puranas, it has been called as Anulanghit ruler (King of the only earth), Bhargava (like Parashurama, Sarvakshatrantak (destroyer of Kshatriyas) etc. Due to his victories, Mahapadmananda converted Magadha into a vast empire. ‘Kharavela’ The ‘Hathigumpha inscription’ is an indicator of his Kalinga conquest. The last of the eight sons of Mahapadmananda, Ghanananda, was contemporary to Alexander. Greek writers have called it Agrameez and Jandramij. It was during Ghanananda’s reign that Alexander conquered the west coast in about 325 BC. Chandragupta Maurya ended Ghananand.

FAQ-

Q: Which Buddhist text gives information about the sixteen Mahajanapadas?

Ans: Angutarnika

Q: Which ruler of Haryanka dynasty is called Kunik?

Ans: Ajatashatru

Q: Which ruler established the salt city ‘Pataliputra’ at the confluence of the Ganges and Son rivers?

Ans: Udayin

Q: Which ruler of the Shishunaga dynasty, during whose time the second Buddhist concert was organized in Vaishali, was also known as Kakavarna?

Ans: Kalashok

Q: Who was called the ‘Agramen’ by the Greek writers?

Ans: Mahapadmanand

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History of Mauryan Empire

The period of the Maurya Empire lasted from 321 BC to 298 BC. The Maurya Empire was one of the most powerful dynasty of India. The main credit for the establishment of the Maurya Empire goes to Chandragupta Maurya and his Prime Minister Chanakya.

The Maurya Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of his guru Chanakya in 321 BC. The expansion of this empire started from the plains of the Ganges river in the state of Magadha in the east, which is presently Bihar and Bengal, and its capital was Pataliputra. By 316 BC, the Maurya dynasty had taken control over the whole of North West India. Emperor Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Maurya dynasty, who became world famous due to his powerful and great.

Major Rulers of the Maurya Empire

Chandragupta Maurya (321 BCE to 298 BCE)

Chandragupta Maurya, with the help of his guru Chanakya (Vishnugupta, Kautilya), established the Maurya Empire by defeating the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, Ghanananda. There is a lot of difference among scholars about the caste of Chandragupta Maurya. In Brahmin literature, they are considered as Shudras, in Buddhist and Jain texts they are Kshatriyas, Romila Thapar has considered them to be of Vaishya caste.

Sitting on the throne of Magadha, Chandragupta Maurya laid the foundation of an empire that spread all over India. Chandragupta Maurya freed North-Western India from the successors of Alexander, abolished the Nandas, defeated Seleucus, forced the treaty and established the Maurya Empire and its boundaries ranged from the border of Iran in the northwest to present-day Karnataka and Karnataka in the south. It extended from Magadha in the east to Sopara and Saurashtra in the west.

In 305 BC, there was a war between the Greek ruler Seleucus and Chandragupta Maurya, in which Chandragupta Maurya was victorious. Thereafter a treaty was concluded between the two, according to which Seleucus gave the regions of Aria, Arachosia, Jedrosia and Peripemisdai as dowry in the marriage of his daughter Helena with Chandragupta Maurya. According to Plutarch, Chandragupta gifted 500 elephants to Seleucus. Seleucus sent one of his ambassadors, Megasthenes, to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.

In the last phase of his life, Chandragupta Maurya took initiation of Jainism from the Jain sage Bhadrabahu and gave up his body by fasting in about 298 BC on the Chandragiri hill in Shravanabelagola, Mysore, Karnataka.

Chandragupta Maurya was a skilled warrior, general and great conqueror as well as a capable ruler. He was the first ruler of India to rule over a vast empire. Chandragupta Maurya established such a system of governance which was adopted by other rulers also. The main feature of Chandragupta Maurya’s rule was more decentralization of power, developed bureaucratic system, proper judicial system, many effective measures were taken by the state for the growth of city governance, agriculture, craft industry, communication, trade and commerce.

Bindusara (298 BCE to 272 BCE)

Chandragupta Maurya’s son Bindusara became the next ruler of the Maurya Empire, which the Greek writer called Amitrochides. Bindusara has been called ‘Bhadrasar’ in Vayu Purana and ‘Singhsen’ in Jain Granth. The book Divyavadana describes two rebellions of Taxila during Bindusara’s time, to suppress which Bindusara first sent his son Ashoka, followed by Susim.

According to Strabo, the Greek ruler Antiochus sent an ambassador named ‘Dymachus’ to the court of Bindusara, whom Megasthenes’ successor Bindusara ruled in the same administrative area as his father Chandragupta Maurya and he divided the kingdoms into provinces, Kumar or Kumar in each province. Appointed Uparaja. According to Divyavadana, the king of Avanti nation was Ashoka.

Bindusara was a follower of the Ajivak sect. Ajivika Paribrajak used to reside in his assembly. Chanakya had been the prime minister of the kingdom of three Mauryan emperors, after whose death Radhagupta succeeded him.

Ashoka (273 BC to 232 BC)

We get early information about the life of Emperor Ashoka from Buddhist evidences such as Divyadan and Sinhalese texts. According to Divyadan, the name of Emperor Ashoka Mata is found Subhadangri. According to Sinhala, Emperor Ashoka had ascended the throne of Magadha after killing his 99 brothers. Ashoka was consecrated in 269 BC after a power struggle of nearly four years.

Emperor Ashoka invaded Kalinga in about 261 BCE, the eighth year of his consecration. It is known from the Hathigumpha inscription that possibly Kalinga was ruled by a king named Nandraj and at that time the capital of Kalinga was ‘Tosali’. A detailed description of the Kalinga war and its consequences is found in Ashoka’s thirteenth inscription.

According to Kalhana’s Rajatarangani, Emperor Ashoka established a city named Srinagar on the banks of the river Vitasta in Kashmir. It is known from the inscriptions received by Emperor Ashoka that his empire extended up to the North-West Frontier Province (Afghanistan), Karnataka in the south, Kathiawar in the west and the Bay of Bengal in the east.

According to the Jain Shruti of Tibet, Ashoka had established a city named ‘Lalipattan’ in Nepal. During his visit to Lumbini, he reduced the rate of land tax there from 1/6 to 1/8. After the Kalinga war, Emperor Ashoka abandoned ‘Bheri Ghosh’ and adopted ‘Dhamma Ghosh’.

Ashoka’s Dhamma

The code of conduct which Emperor Ashoka spoke of following for the moral development of his subjects was called Ashoka’s Dhamma. The mention of Ashoka’s Dhamma is found only in the ‘Bhabu’ (Virat) miniature inscription. In this small inscription, Ashoka has expressed his belief in ‘Trisangh’. These are the Trisanghas – Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. It is also called as Triratna. The basic sutras of Ashoka’s Dhamma are-

  1. restraint (control of the senses)
  2. Bhava Shuddhi (purity of thoughts)
  3. gratitude
  4. steadfast devotion
  5. Mercy
  6. Shaucha (purity)
  7. truth
  8. good service
  9. charity
  10. property (assistance)
  11. disrespect (respect)

Ashoka’s inscriptions

We get complete information about the history of Emperor Ashoka from his inscriptions. So far, about 40 inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka have been received. Four scripts have been used in all these inscriptions – Brahmi, Kharoshthi, Greek and Aramaic.

Ashoka used Pali language as the national language and script. Ashoka’s inscriptions are divided into three parts – inscriptions, pillar inscriptions and cave inscriptions.

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History of Vedic Period | History of Vedic Period in Hindi

After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, the civilization of which we got the knowledge from the Vedas is called the Vedic period. The originator of Vedic period civilization was Aryan, hence it is also known as Aryan civilization. Arya means superior. The period of Vedic period is considered to be from 1500 BC to 600 BC. The Vedic period is divided into two parts, the Rigvedic period and the later Vedic period.

History of Rigvedic Period | History of Rigvedic Period

The period of Rigvedic period is considered to be from 1500 BC to 1000 BC. Two types of evidence are available for the study of the Rigvedic period – first archaeological evidence, under which painted gray pottery, bogazkoi inscriptions, raw records etc.

Origin and arrival of Aryans in India.Origin of Aryans and Arrival in India

There is a lot of difference among scholars regarding the origin of Aryans and arrival in India. However, the accepted date for the arrival of the Aryans has been set by Max Müller to 1500 BC. There are also different opinions about the original abode of the Aryans, in which Dr. Avinash Chandra Das in his book ‘Rigvedic India’ has considered the Sapta Saindhav region in India to be the original abode of the Aryans, while Mahamahopadhyay Pandit Ganganath Jha has considered the country of Brahmarshi in India. It is believed to be the original abode of the Aryans. Similarly, Swami Dayanand Saraswati has considered Tibet as the original abode of the Aryans. In this regard, Dayanand Saraswati has described in his book ‘Satyarth Prakash and Indian Historical Tradition’. Whereas Max Muller has described Central Asia as the original abode of the Aryans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak has described the North Pole as the original abode of the Aryans.

In all these, the most authentic opinion regarding the original abode of the Aryans is considered to be of Eurasia, located in the eastern part of the Alpas mountain.

It is said that the Aryans invaded India several times and more than one of their branches came to India. The most important tribe of the Aryans in India was ‘Bharat’. The five Aryan poets mentioned in the Rigveda were Puru, Yadu, Turvash, Anu, and Druhu, who were known as ‘Panchjan’.

Description of the geographical area of ​​the Aryans.Description of the geographical area of ​​the Aryans

Aryans arrived in India sometime before 1500 BC. First of all in India he started settling in Sapta Saindhav region. We get the mention of 7 rivers flowing in Sapta Saindhav region from Rigveda. The names of these rivers are- Sindhu, Saraswati, Shatudri, Bipasha, Parushni, Vitasta, Askini etc. Indus river was very important river from economic point of view, hence it was also called ‘Hiranyani’ river. In Rigveda we also find mention of some of the rivers of Afghanistan, such as- Kubha, Kubhru, Gomti, Suvastu etc. From which it is clear that at that time Afghanistan was also a part of India. In the Rigveda, the Himalaya mountain is mentioned about a mountain named ‘Himvant’. In the Rigveda, the peak of the Himalayas is called Moojavant, which was famous for Soma. Arya captured the territories near Kurukshetra as his next stop and named that region as Brahmavarta. After which the area between the Himalayas and the Vindhyachal mountains was captured and named Madhya Pradesh. In the end the Aryans occupied the whole of North India by capturing the southern and eastern parts of Bengal and Bihar, which later came to be known as ‘Aryavarta’.

Rivers of Rigveda period.Rigveda Rivers

A total of 25 rivers are mentioned in Rigveda. In which the most important is the Indus river, because the Indus river has been described many times. The rivers Kubhru, Gomti, Kubha and Suvastu were tributaries of the Indus in the western bank. The Vitasata, Askini, Parushini, Bipasha rivers were the tributaries of the eastern bank of the Indus. Indus river is also called Hiranyani because of its economic importance. Apart from this, there is a mention of Saraswati river in Rigveda. Saraswati river is also called the mother of rivers i.e. Naditama. The Saraswati river has now merged with the desert of Rajasthan. The Ghaggar River now flows in its place. Apart from these rivers, there is mention of Drishdhati, Apaya, Sarayu, Yamuna, Ganga river in Rigveda. The Saryu River was a tributary of the Ganges. Yamuna is mentioned three times in the Rigveda. Ganga is mentioned once in the Rigveda.

Reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period. Reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period

The main reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period were that they had horse-drawn chariots, good equipment and armor available with them. The Aryans used a special type of fort called a pur. He used bow and arrow in battle. There were usually two types of arrows, one was poisonous and horned and the other was copper-headed. Apart from this, they also used spear, spear and sword in the war. Bharata had the support of Vishwamitra. On the strength of this cooperation, he had won Vyas and Shatadri. But later Bharata accepted Vashistha as his guru.

There was a war of 10 kings on the banks of Parushani river. In this, five Aryans and five non-Aryan tribes fought together against India. The five tribes of Aryans were named Puru, Yadu, Turvash, Druhu and Anu. The names of the five non-Aryan tribes were Alin, Pakatha, Bhalanas, Visanin and Shiva. Bharata king Sudas was victorious in this war. This war is also called Dasaragya war.

Describe the political condition of the Aryans. Describe the political condition of the Aryans

When the Aryans came to India for the first time, they had a conflict with the people here called Dasas, in which the Aryans got victory. Due to the existence of five tribes of Aryans in Rigveda, they were called Panchjanya. The names of these tribes were Puru, Yadu, Anu, Turvash and Druhu. This country was named Bharatvarsha after the name of Bharat Kul.

In the Rigvedic period the society was organized in the form of clans. Kaabil was also called Jana. The administration of a clan or Jana was carried out by the head of the clan who was called Rajan. By this time the position of the king had become hereditary. The people of the tribe voluntarily paid taxes to the king who was called Bali. In the tenth mandala of Rigveda, the king is asked to protect the nation. The word Jana is mentioned 275 times in Rigveda whereas the word Janapada is not mentioned even once. From the chief officer named Purohit fighter and villager to help the king. The post of the priest who came at this time was hereditary.

Some tribal organizations existed such as Sabha, Samiti, Vidatha and Gana. The Sabha originated in the later period of the Rigveda, which was an organization of old and aristocratic people. It was smaller than the committee, its members were superior people. The committee was a general public representative’s assembly. The committee used to elect the king and exercised control over him. The ancient culture of Vidatha Aryans, which was also called Jansabha. Vidatha is mentioned 22 times in Rigveda. In the Rigveda period, women also participated in the sabha and vidatha. The hymns related to the election of the king have been found in both the Rigveda and the Brahmanas and Aitareya Brahmanas written on it.

The smallest unit of administration in the Rigvedic period was the Kul or Griha, over which the village was situated. At the top of the village was Vish and at the top was the people. The word Jana is mentioned 275 times in the Rigvedic period while the word Janapada is not mentioned even once. Vish is mentioned 170 times in Rigveda.

Description of the judicial system in the Rigvedic period. Description of the judicial system in the Rigvedic period

The judicial system in the Rigvedic period was based on religion. During this period, the king used to do justice with the help of legal advisors and priests. In the Rigvedic period, there is mention of crimes like theft, dacoity, rahajani etc. During this period the theft of animals was the highest, which was done by the Pani people. Most of the wars in the Rigvedic period took place over the cow. There was no practice of capital punishment during this period. In this, the criminals were punished with corporal punishment and fine. In the Rigvedic period, the insolvent was made the slave of the creditor.

Social life of people in Rigvedic period. Social life of people in Rigvedic period

The smallest unit of the society in the Vedic period was the family or clan. The word Kul is not mentioned in the Rigveda. The word home is used for family. Many families together form the village and many villages together form the wish, similarly many wishes together form the people. The Rigveda was a patriarchal society in which the father was the head of the family.

Evidence of the existence of varna system has been found in the Rigvedic period. In which Aryans were called Gaur Varna and Dasas were called Krishna Varna. In this, the basis of the varna system was karma. The position of women in the Rigvedic period was respectable. She could participate in yagya works along with her husband and could donate. During this period the system of purdah was not prevalent and women used to take education. In the Rigveda, there are mentions of learned women like Lopamudra, Ghosha, Sikta, Apala and Vivara.

There was no practice of polygamy on child marriage in Rigveda. The age of marriage in this period was about 16 to 17 years. Generally, only one wife system was prevalent in the society. However, the affluent used to have more than one marriage. Dowry system was prevalent in Rigvedic period. Under which gifts were given at the time of the farewell of the girl. The details of sati system and purdah system are not available. Niyoga system was prevalent in the society during the Rig Vedic period. In the Rig Vedic period, women did not have the right to participate in politics, as well as they did not have the right to property.

Rice and joe were the main food items of the people in the Rig Vedic period. Apart from this, they also used to consume fruits, milk, curd, ghee and meat. At that time somers were the favorite drink of the people. In the Rig Vedic period, people used to wear clothes made of kshema, wool and deer leather. Mention of Nishka, Kurir and Karnashobhan is found in the main ornaments of the Rig Vedic period. Jewelery was worn by both men and women. Music was the main means of entertainment at that time. Apart from this, there is also evidence of chariot race, horse race, gaming and hunting, which shows that gambling was also prevalent at that time.

Economic life of the people of Rigvedic period. Economic life of the people of Rigvedic period

The main occupation of the people of Rigvedic period was animal husbandry and agriculture. Cow was used as currency in Rigveda. In Rigveda, Avi (sheep) and Aja (goat) are mentioned many times. In this period, the word Godhuli was used for the Mao of time while Gavyatu was used for the measurement of distance.

Agriculture is used 24 times in Rigveda while the word Go is used 174 times. The cow was considered sacred in the Rigveda and was the main means of exchange. During this period cows and maids were given to the priests as dakshina.

In the Rigvedic period, information is available about those who wash clothes, make clothes, do wood and metal work and utensils. In the Rigveda, the word ‘ayas’ is probably used for copper and bronze. In Rigveda the words Hiranya and Suvarna have been used for gold. Nishk means gold currency was prevalent at that time.

In the Rigvedic period barter system was started for buying and selling in trade. At that time, trade was done by both land route and waterway. Rigveda also mentions about traveling by boat with hundred rudders. During this period, the class taking interest by giving loans was called Beknaat i.e. usurer.

Religious life of the people of Rigvedic period.Religious life of the people of Rigvedic period

In the Rigvedic period the deities were divided into three parts-

1. Gods of the sky- Surya, Dyas, Varun, Mitra, Pushan, Vishnu, Usha, Savita etc. were prominent in this.

2. Gods of Space- In this Indra, Marut, Rudra, Vayu, Parjanya, Aja Ekapad etc. were prominent.

3. Gods of the Earth- Agni, Soma, Prithvi, Brihaspati and rivers were prominent in this.

In the Rigveda, Indra has been described as the most majestic deity. In about 250 hymns of Rigveda, the god Indra has been described.

Agni is considered to be the second most important deity in the Rigveda. The sacrifices were made to the gods only through fire. Agni is mentioned in about 200 hymns of Rigveda.

Varuna has been given the third place among the deities of Rigveda. In this, Varuna deity has been mentioned in about 30 hymns. The 7th mandala of Rigveda is dedicated to the deity Varuna.

Akash is considered to be the oldest deity of Rigveda. Akash was considered the supreme deity and Soma the god of vegetation.

In the Rigvedic period, the main method of worship of the deities was to recite praise and to offer earrings in the yajna. Barley and herbs were used as sacrifices in sacrifice.

There is no evidence of temple or idol worship in this period. In the Rigvedic period, the main purpose of praising the gods was the attainment of material pleasures and not the attainment of salvation.

Biography of Mahatma Buddha and History of Buddhism | Biography of Mahatma Buddha and History of Buddhism

Lord Buddha was the originator of Buddhism. The childhood name of Lord Buddha was Siddhartha, who was born in 563 BC to a Kshatriya clan in a village called Lumbini in Kapilvastu. His father’s name was Shuddhodhana and mother’s name was Mahamaya. His mother died on the 7th day after the birth of Buddha, due to which he was brought up by his aunt Mahaprajapati Gautami.

At the age of 16, Siddhartha was married to Yashodhara, a daughter of the Shakya clan, after which he received a son Ratna, whose name was Rahul.

From childhood, Mahatma Buddha was not interested in worldly affairs. Once he went on a tour, he saw four scenes in turn. The first scene is of an old man, the second of a sick person, the third of a weeping crowd carrying a dead body and the fourth of a happy sannyasi. Seeing the last scene, the mind of Mahatma Buddha was attracted towards sannyas. Due to which distressed by worldly problems, he left the house at the age of 29. The incident of Mahatma Buddha leaving his house is called Mahabhinishkraman.

After leaving home, he first came to Alarkalam’s ashram near Vaishali. Alarkalam was a teacher of Sankhya philosophy and was famous for his spiritual power. After which he left for Bodh Gaya via Rajgriha. At the age of 35, at the age of 35, Siddhartha attained enlightenment under a Peepal tree on the night of Vaishakh Purnima, after 6 years of rigorous penance without food and water. After attaining enlightenment, he came to be called Buddha. Near Bodh Gaya, two Banjaras made Tapus and Mallik their first disciples.

From Bodh Gaya, Lord Buddha reached Sarnath, where he gave his first sermon to 5 Brahmin monks. In Buddhist texts this event is known as the change of Dharma Chakra. The first female disciple of Mahatma Buddha was his aunt Mahaprajapati Gautami. Vaishali’s famous city bride Amrapali also became his disciple and provided Amravatika for the development of the Bhikshu Sangh.

Mahatma Buddha gave his sermons in Magadha, Kosala, Vaishali, Kaushambi, and many other states. Lord Buddha gave most of his sermons in Shravasti, the capital of Kosala. The main rulers of Buddha were Bimbisara, Prasenjit and Udayana.

Mahatma Buddha reached Kushinara at the end of his life, where he died in 483 BC at the age of 80. In the Buddhist texts, the incident of his death was called Mahaparinirvana. After his death, the remains of his body were divided into 8 parts and 8 stupas were built on it.

Teachings of Mahatma Buddha Teachings of Mahatma Buddha

Mahatma Buddha has spoken of the Eightfold Path for liberation from worldly sorrows, which are as follows- 1. Right Vision, 2. Right Will, 3. Right Speech, 4. Right Action, 5. Right Living, 6. Right Exercise. , 7. Right Smriti, 8. Right Samadhi. According to the Buddha, by following these eightfold paths, one’s cravings are destroyed and Nirvana is attained.

While preaching the middle path, Mahatma Buddha has said that one should avoid vegetable type of attraction and temptation. The ultimate goal of Buddhism is nirvana, which means the extinguishing of the lamp, that is, liberation from the cycle of life and death.

Mahatma Buddha has given special emphasis on 10 Shilas to make it easy to attain Nirvana. These 10 precepts are non-violence, truth, non-stealing, abstaining from adultery, abstinence from alcohol, taking food on time, abstaining from sleeping on a soft bed, avoiding accumulation of wealth, staying away from women and dancing, etc.

The three jewels of Buddhism are Buddha, Sangha and Dhamma.

During the reign of Kanishka, Buddhism was divided into two parts – Hinayana and Mahayana. The Hinayana people were low-lying and conservative. He was of individualistic view. Hinayana considered Mahatma Buddha to be a great man. He did not believe in idol worship and devotion. The people of Hinayana sect are spread in countries like Sri Lanka, Burma, Java etc. These people have accepted the original teachings of the Buddha without any change.

Whereas the people of Mahayana Mahayana were excellent and reformist tendencies. In this, there is a provision for worshiping the idol of Buddha and worshiping Buddha as an incarnation. Presently the people of Mahayana sect are in Tibet, China, Korea, Mongolia and Japan.

History of Jainism | History of Jainism

The word Jain is derived from ‘Jin’. The word ‘Jin’ meaning Jain means the conqueror (one who has conquered the senses). The word ‘Jin’ is first used for Mahavir Swami, the 24th and last Tirthankara of Jainism. The name of Jainism has come into existence from the time of Mahavir Swami. Prior to that Jainism was called Nirgrantha or Nirgund. The history of early Jainism is found in the texts named Bhagwatisutra, Kalpasutra and Parashishtaparvan. There were a total of 24 Tirthankaras in Jainism.

The founder, originator and first Tirthankara of Jainism was Swami Rishabhdev, who was born in Ikshvaku. The symbol of Rishabhdev is a bull. In the early Bhagavata Purana, Rishabhdev is considered an incarnation of Vishnu. Rishabhdev died on Mount Kailash i.e. Mount Kailash.

The 23rd and first historical Tirthankara of Jainism was Parshvanath, who was the son of Kashi King Ashwasen. Parshvanath, at the age of 30, left his home and performed austerity on Sammed Parvat and attained Kaivalya on the 84th day. The symbol of Parshvanath was the snake. He preached Jainism in Saket, Rajgriha, Hastinapur, Kaushambi, Shravasti for about 70 years and attained Nirvana at the age of 100. Parshvanath’s first follower was his mother Vama and his wife Prabhavati.

Biography and teachings of Mahavir Swami | Biography and teachings of Mahavir Swami

Mahavir Swami, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in 540 BC at Kundagram near Vaishali. Mahavir’s childhood name was Vardhman. They were of Kshatriya varna and Jantrika clan. His father’s name was Siddhartha and mother’s name was Trishala. His father was a prominent member of Vajji Sangh. Mahavir was married to a woman named Yashoda. He later became the father of a daughter.

At the age of 30, Mahavir left the house with the permission of his elder brother Nandivardhana. From the age of 13, he completely abandoned clothes and started living naked. Mahavir Swami first went to Nalanda in search of knowledge, where he met Makkhaliputra Goshal. After 12 years of rigorous penance, at the age of 42, Mahavir Swami attained knowledge under the Sal tree on the banks of river Rijupalika near Jambhika village.

After attaining knowledge, Mahavir Swami was given titles like Kevalin, Jin, Arha, Nirgranth. After attaining knowledge, Mahavir Swami spread his faith by visiting places like Champa, Vaishali, Rajgriha, Shravasti, Anga, Kaushal, Vidarbha, Magadha etc.

After preaching Jainism continuously for 30 years, Mahaparinirvana was attained at the age of 72 in 468 BC in the palace of Malla king Sastipala at a place called Pavapuri located near Rajagriha.

The details of the five Mahavratas of Jainism by Mahavir Swami are as follows-

1. Non-violence- It has been said to avoid all kinds of mental, physical and verbal violence.

2. Truth- It has been said to always speak truthful and sweet words.

3. Aparigraha- In this it has been said that the monks should avoid all kinds of property acquisition.

4. Asteya- It is said to avoid taking property of others without permission.

5. Brahmacharya- In this, it has been said that the monks should follow the vow of complete celibacy. It has been said for the householders to observe Anuvrat.

triratna

In Jainism, it has been said to follow the Triratna to avoid the consequences of this birth by eliminating the karma of the previous birth. These three gems are as follows-

1. Samyak Gyan- Knowledge of Truth.

2. Samyak Shraddha- belief in truth.

3. Right conduct – Right conduct by following righteousness and good conduct.

The symbol of Mahavir Swami is a lion.

Jain literature is called Agam. The important text of Jainism, Kalpasutra is written in Sanskrit. Important temples related to Jainism under architecture are Hathigumpha Temple (Orissa), Dilwara Temple, Mount Abu (Rajasthan), Gomateshwara Statue (Karnataka), Parshvanath built in Khajuraho, Temple of Adinath.

The first Jain council was held at Pataliputra between 322 and 298 BC during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya, headed by Sthulabhadra. In this Jainism was divided into two parts Shvetambara and Digambara.

The second Jain council was held in 512 AD at Ballabhi, presided over by Devardhigani. In this, the texts of Jainism were finally compiled and written down and the number of 84 Agamas was fixed.