Biodiversity Hotspots in India

In this article, we will learn about the biodiversity hotspots in India. India has an important place in terms of biodiversity. India covers 2.4% of the total area of ​​the world. More than 8% of the world’s biodiversity is found here. There are total 4 hotspot areas in India, out of which two hotspot areas are located in the most hotspot areas of the world. Sunderland was declared a hotspot area by the United Nations in 2013, which includes the Nankauri Islands, including the Nicobar Islands of Trinket.

Biodiversity hotspots in India

Following are the biodiversity hotspots in India-

  1. Biodiversity Hotspots in India
  2. Himalayan region
  3. Indo Burma Region
  4. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Region
  5. Sunderland (Nankuri Islands, which includes Trinquet, Great Nicobar Islands)
  6. Himalayan Hotspot

The Eastern Himalayan Hotspot is spread over the areas of North-Central India, South Central and East Nepal and Bhutan. Geographically, it is the highest place in the world in terms of area. Everest and Mount K2 are the highest peaks in the world. It is a very important area from the point of view of biodiversity. Evergreen forests are found here due to excessive rainfall. Due to favorable conditions in terms of rainfall and temperature, the fauna here has an abundance of endemic species of trees and plants. It is heavily affected due to the widening of the hotspot area. Here some species are also found at higher altitudes such as Circhesteraceae, Butomaceae and Stachyuraceae are endemic species.
Pygmyhog, Golden Langur, Himalayan Tahr, Langur, Asiatic Wild Dog, Sloth Bear, Gaur, Muntjac, Sambar, Snow Leopard, Black Bear, Blue Sheep, Takin, Ganges Dolphin, Underwater Buffalo, Swamp Deer, Himalayan Fauna. The Namdapha flying squirrel is a highly endangered local animal found in the Namdapha National Park.

Indo Burma Hotspot

The Indo Burma Hotspot region is spread over several countries. Whose area extends from eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia. Or the north eastern region of India, the southern part of the Brahmaputra river, extending from Myanmar, to the Greece region of southern China. Apart from this, it is also spread in the areas of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand.
The hotspot area of ​​Indo Burma is surrounded by highly forested areas, but due to environmental imbalance and human encroachment, these forest areas are shrinking, affecting the endemic species of the region. Many species like monkey, langur and gibbon are found in this area. let’s go. Species of freshwater turtles, which are endemic species, are found in large numbers. Ginger is an endemic species of the region. Apart from this, many species of birds are also found here. The endangered white-eared night heron, gray crown crosia and orange-naked petri are endemic species that are now on the verge of extinction.

Western Ghats and Sri Lanka Hotspot

The hotspot region extends to southwestern India and the southwestern highlands region of Sri Lanka. The Western Ghats of India are mostly mountainous regions. Due to excessive rainfall, rain forests and moist deciduous forests are found here. Due to the conditions here for the development of flora and fauna, abundance of biodiversity is found. The Western Ghats locally bring the Sahyadri mountain peaks, which include the Malabar plains and mountain ranges.

There are about 6000 species of plants, of which 3000 are endemic. There is a lot of talk of population in this area. Evergreen forests Rain forests are found in the Sri Lankan region. Some special species like Asian elephant, Nilgiris, Tahr, Indian tiger, lion tail monkey, large sized squirrel are also found here.

Sunderland Hotspot

The Sunderland Hotspot region extends to the western part of the Indo Malaya Islands located in Southeast Asia. The United Nations declared the Sunderland Hotspot region a world reserve biosphere in 2013. It is a very important region in terms of land and marine biodiversity. Important flora and fauna species are found naturally in this area. Special species like coral, whale, dugong, tortoise, crocodile, fish etc. are found. Due to over-exploitation of marine resources, biodiversity is being severely affected.

5 Key Values ​​of Biodiversity

In this article we will learn about the value of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity. All the organisms found on earth are highly variable based on their habitat and properties, which are very helpful in maintaining the existence of humans. Human beings directly or indirectly benefit from biodiversity. Human beings get food from flora and fauna, resources needed for habitat, clothing, medicines, rubber, wood etc. as well as the resources needed for scientific research and innovation. Biodiversity is the basis of life on earth, rich in biodiversity helps in keeping the ecosystem healthy and balanced.

Biodiversity has the following value-

1. Producer Source

Biodiversity leads to the production of a large number of products, from which direct and indirect economic benefits are earned. New improved species are obtained from biodiversity by different method of seeds of organic fertilizer crops to increase the production capacity of soil for humans. There are many plant species in the world from which to prepare food, but humans still produce less than an estimated 20% of plant species. These 20% of species obtain food from about 50% of the world’s human population. Among agricultural plant species, especially wheat and maize rice, millet pulses provide two-thirds of the food humans need to survive. Some species are produced commercially and local species are protected by creating new species by crossbreeding with developed and productive species to increase their production efficiency.

2. Medicines

In the world there is an abundance of such producers that have therapeutic properties. There are about 5000 species of medicinal and herbs found in other regions of the world like India, due to which many diseases have been treated for centuries. Medicines for complex diseases like cancer are made from pain relievers, herbal preparations related to the treatment of malaria. Morphine in pain relievers is made from the herb, for the manufacture of the drug Taxol for cancer and many antibiotics made using microorganisms. About 25% of the world’s medicines are made up of only 120 species. Medicinal plants are available in different regions of the world. Most of the medicinal plants are found in equatorial regions and tropical rain forests.

3. Importance of Beauty

Man has always got flowers and fruits from nature. Man today is promoting the protection of animals, birds or trees through zoos to promote eco-tourism and preserve their natural beauty through botanical gardens. Man has been related to animal husbandry for centuries. These animals, birds and trees have always influenced their lives. Man has been giving cultural importance to Tulsi and Peepal trees since ancient times. Human existence has always been associated with these species of biodiversity.

4. Significance of Social or Ecosystem

The decline in biodiversity directly affects social life. Biodiversity keeps the ecosystem healthy and stable. Today, problems like global warming and acid rain have arisen due to the decline in biodiversity. Maintenance is necessary to maintain the sustainable use of all the substances derived from biodiversity. Biodiversity is the basis of life. Which is very important for maintaining life on earth.

5. Importance of Biodiversity in Agriculture

Biodiversity is the source of genetic material of agriculture which is extremely important for the future of agriculture. Agricultural biodiversity strengthens the agricultural ecosystem and nurtures all species by increasing production efficiency. The species’ dependence has been on agriculture for centuries. About 940 species of agriculture are threatened by pollution due to diseases and other causes. Conservation of agricultural biodiversity is of utmost importance for the balance of life and ecosystem. Agricultural biodiversity can be preserved through academic research, education and monitoring.

significant threats to biodiversity

Climate change is increasing the level of pollution due to the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources by humans, thereby creating habitats of different species, due to which many species have either become extinct or are on the verge of extinction. The increase in air and water pollution has caused many diseases and these diseases have greatly affected the biodiversity, resulting in extreme loss of biodiversity.

Many natural disasters are affecting biodiversity today due to the loss of grasslands that tower over excessive forests. Sometimes, due to natural calamities, the entire habitat and species of the bio-community are destroyed. Rising temperatures threaten to police top marine biodiversity. Due to pollution, sea water is becoming more saline, due to which species of ungulates found in it are at risk.

Many toxic substances and oils are released into the sea during the construction of coastal engineering, which are negatively affecting biodiversity. Due to pollution in sea water and river water, the vegetation found in the soil of the sea and river is not able to reach the light, as a result of which these flora have disappeared and the animals and vegetation dependent on them have reached a critical condition. . The main reason for the loss of biodiversity in India is water and air pollution, which threatens 79 of India’s mammals, 44 of 44 reptiles and 3 species of amphibians.

The following are the reasons for the degradation of biodiversity:

1. Destruction of Habitats

In the process of indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources, human beings have negatively affected forest wetland area, grasslands etc., destroyed species habitats and put many species at risk. Industrial development, road construction, building construction, plowing of grassland for agriculture, increased agricultural area, deforestation and forest fires destroy the habitats of the species, forcing the species to leave their habitat. Due to the change in the natural habitat, these species are struggling to protect themselves. This is the reason that thousands of species of flora and fauna are becoming extinct day by day.

2. Entry of Exotic Species

In any area, if it enters a species from another area through various means, it affects the native species there. Due to its high fertility under its influence, it quickly gains control over a particular area, which endangers the local species and this species becomes extinct over a period of time. For example, during the 1966 Parliament in India, imported wheat was also accompanied by a weed known as Congress grass or Parthenium hysterophorus or American weed. This grass replaced the Funia grass tree species causing a local ecological crisis and which greatly affects the insects and crops that depend on the plant.

Hyacinth is commonly seen in ponds and lakes in India, which, due to its complexity in its composition and excessive immunity, obstructs the elements of jubilee and ponds and poses a threat to aquatic species. Due to which the ponds, flora and fauna living in those districts are not able to reach the tissue light. Plants make their own food by photosynthesis in the presence of light and other organisms depend on these primary producing plants. As vegetation becomes endangered, so do other species that depend on it.

3. Pollution

Human-made barriers and natural barriers vary greatly in intensity, rate and area expansion. Due to the destruction of forests by humans, species can survive in other habitats as well, but due to pollution, both air and water become contaminated, affecting a large area. Vulnerable species are rapidly becoming extinct due to polluted air and acid rain. Pollution affects the entire habitat area and society due to which species are destroyed. For example, the rapid extinction of organisms on small fish reflects the effects of pollution. Oil spills and spills in the ocean affect a large number of marine life species and kill vulnerable species.

4. Population Growth and Poverty

At present, the total population of the world is about 7 largest and every year 8 to 90 million people are joining it. As the population increases, the pressure on natural resources is also increasing. About 40% of the world’s population still lives below the poverty line, basically dependent on natural resources. Biodiversity is being lost due to human encroachment into the areas of other species to meet their needs.

5. Natural Causes

The existence of biodiversity is also in danger due to increase in natural calamities, death. Earthquakes Volcanoes Landslides Many species of flora outside the Forest Act are on the verge of extinction due to diseases. Natural disasters play a role in the fragmentation of natural habitats leading to endemic species, which affects the production rate of biodiversity.

6. Other Major Reasons

Poaching and smuggling of animals affects biodiversity. In the process of filling the land with water, many species get displaced in the process of removing that water. Biodiversity is affected by the expansion of agricultural areas. Biodiversity is also affected due to the destruction of coastal areas and climate change.

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