History of Vedic Period | History of Vedic Period in Hindi
After the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, the civilization of which we got the knowledge from the Vedas is called the Vedic period. The originator of Vedic period civilization was Aryan, hence it is also known as Aryan civilization. Arya means superior. The period of Vedic period is considered to be from 1500 BC to 600 BC. The Vedic period is divided into two parts, the Rigvedic period and the later Vedic period.
History of Rigvedic Period | History of Rigvedic Period
The period of Rigvedic period is considered to be from 1500 BC to 1000 BC. Two types of evidence are available for the study of the Rigvedic period – first archaeological evidence, under which painted gray pottery, bogazkoi inscriptions, raw records etc.
Origin and arrival of Aryans in India.Origin of Aryans and Arrival in India
There is a lot of difference among scholars regarding the origin of Aryans and arrival in India. However, the accepted date for the arrival of the Aryans has been set by Max Müller to 1500 BC. There are also different opinions about the original abode of the Aryans, in which Dr. Avinash Chandra Das in his book ‘Rigvedic India’ has considered the Sapta Saindhav region in India to be the original abode of the Aryans, while Mahamahopadhyay Pandit Ganganath Jha has considered the country of Brahmarshi in India. It is believed to be the original abode of the Aryans. Similarly, Swami Dayanand Saraswati has considered Tibet as the original abode of the Aryans. In this regard, Dayanand Saraswati has described in his book ‘Satyarth Prakash and Indian Historical Tradition’. Whereas Max Muller has described Central Asia as the original abode of the Aryans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak has described the North Pole as the original abode of the Aryans.
In all these, the most authentic opinion regarding the original abode of the Aryans is considered to be of Eurasia, located in the eastern part of the Alpas mountain.
It is said that the Aryans invaded India several times and more than one of their branches came to India. The most important tribe of the Aryans in India was ‘Bharat’. The five Aryan poets mentioned in the Rigveda were Puru, Yadu, Turvash, Anu, and Druhu, who were known as ‘Panchjan’.
Description of the geographical area of the Aryans.Description of the geographical area of the Aryans
Aryans arrived in India sometime before 1500 BC. First of all in India he started settling in Sapta Saindhav region. We get the mention of 7 rivers flowing in Sapta Saindhav region from Rigveda. The names of these rivers are- Sindhu, Saraswati, Shatudri, Bipasha, Parushni, Vitasta, Askini etc. Indus river was very important river from economic point of view, hence it was also called ‘Hiranyani’ river. In Rigveda we also find mention of some of the rivers of Afghanistan, such as- Kubha, Kubhru, Gomti, Suvastu etc. From which it is clear that at that time Afghanistan was also a part of India. In the Rigveda, the Himalaya mountain is mentioned about a mountain named ‘Himvant’. In the Rigveda, the peak of the Himalayas is called Moojavant, which was famous for Soma. Arya captured the territories near Kurukshetra as his next stop and named that region as Brahmavarta. After which the area between the Himalayas and the Vindhyachal mountains was captured and named Madhya Pradesh. In the end the Aryans occupied the whole of North India by capturing the southern and eastern parts of Bengal and Bihar, which later came to be known as ‘Aryavarta’.
Rivers of Rigveda period.Rigveda Rivers
A total of 25 rivers are mentioned in Rigveda. In which the most important is the Indus river, because the Indus river has been described many times. The rivers Kubhru, Gomti, Kubha and Suvastu were tributaries of the Indus in the western bank. The Vitasata, Askini, Parushini, Bipasha rivers were the tributaries of the eastern bank of the Indus. Indus river is also called Hiranyani because of its economic importance. Apart from this, there is a mention of Saraswati river in Rigveda. Saraswati river is also called the mother of rivers i.e. Naditama. The Saraswati river has now merged with the desert of Rajasthan. The Ghaggar River now flows in its place. Apart from these rivers, there is mention of Drishdhati, Apaya, Sarayu, Yamuna, Ganga river in Rigveda. The Saryu River was a tributary of the Ganges. Yamuna is mentioned three times in the Rigveda. Ganga is mentioned once in the Rigveda.
Reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period. Reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period
The main reasons for the victory of the Aryans in the Rigvedic period were that they had horse-drawn chariots, good equipment and armor available with them. The Aryans used a special type of fort called a pur. He used bow and arrow in battle. There were usually two types of arrows, one was poisonous and horned and the other was copper-headed. Apart from this, they also used spear, spear and sword in the war. Bharata had the support of Vishwamitra. On the strength of this cooperation, he had won Vyas and Shatadri. But later Bharata accepted Vashistha as his guru.
There was a war of 10 kings on the banks of Parushani river. In this, five Aryans and five non-Aryan tribes fought together against India. The five tribes of Aryans were named Puru, Yadu, Turvash, Druhu and Anu. The names of the five non-Aryan tribes were Alin, Pakatha, Bhalanas, Visanin and Shiva. Bharata king Sudas was victorious in this war. This war is also called Dasaragya war.
Describe the political condition of the Aryans. Describe the political condition of the Aryans
When the Aryans came to India for the first time, they had a conflict with the people here called Dasas, in which the Aryans got victory. Due to the existence of five tribes of Aryans in Rigveda, they were called Panchjanya. The names of these tribes were Puru, Yadu, Anu, Turvash and Druhu. This country was named Bharatvarsha after the name of Bharat Kul.
In the Rigvedic period the society was organized in the form of clans. Kaabil was also called Jana. The administration of a clan or Jana was carried out by the head of the clan who was called Rajan. By this time the position of the king had become hereditary. The people of the tribe voluntarily paid taxes to the king who was called Bali. In the tenth mandala of Rigveda, the king is asked to protect the nation. The word Jana is mentioned 275 times in Rigveda whereas the word Janapada is not mentioned even once. From the chief officer named Purohit fighter and villager to help the king. The post of the priest who came at this time was hereditary.
Some tribal organizations existed such as Sabha, Samiti, Vidatha and Gana. The Sabha originated in the later period of the Rigveda, which was an organization of old and aristocratic people. It was smaller than the committee, its members were superior people. The committee was a general public representative’s assembly. The committee used to elect the king and exercised control over him. The ancient culture of Vidatha Aryans, which was also called Jansabha. Vidatha is mentioned 22 times in Rigveda. In the Rigveda period, women also participated in the sabha and vidatha. The hymns related to the election of the king have been found in both the Rigveda and the Brahmanas and Aitareya Brahmanas written on it.
The smallest unit of administration in the Rigvedic period was the Kul or Griha, over which the village was situated. At the top of the village was Vish and at the top was the people. The word Jana is mentioned 275 times in the Rigvedic period while the word Janapada is not mentioned even once. Vish is mentioned 170 times in Rigveda.
Description of the judicial system in the Rigvedic period. Description of the judicial system in the Rigvedic period
The judicial system in the Rigvedic period was based on religion. During this period, the king used to do justice with the help of legal advisors and priests. In the Rigvedic period, there is mention of crimes like theft, dacoity, rahajani etc. During this period the theft of animals was the highest, which was done by the Pani people. Most of the wars in the Rigvedic period took place over the cow. There was no practice of capital punishment during this period. In this, the criminals were punished with corporal punishment and fine. In the Rigvedic period, the insolvent was made the slave of the creditor.
Social life of people in Rigvedic period. Social life of people in Rigvedic period
The smallest unit of the society in the Vedic period was the family or clan. The word Kul is not mentioned in the Rigveda. The word home is used for family. Many families together form the village and many villages together form the wish, similarly many wishes together form the people. The Rigveda was a patriarchal society in which the father was the head of the family.
Evidence of the existence of varna system has been found in the Rigvedic period. In which Aryans were called Gaur Varna and Dasas were called Krishna Varna. In this, the basis of the varna system was karma. The position of women in the Rigvedic period was respectable. She could participate in yagya works along with her husband and could donate. During this period the system of purdah was not prevalent and women used to take education. In the Rigveda, there are mentions of learned women like Lopamudra, Ghosha, Sikta, Apala and Vivara.
There was no practice of polygamy on child marriage in Rigveda. The age of marriage in this period was about 16 to 17 years. Generally, only one wife system was prevalent in the society. However, the affluent used to have more than one marriage. Dowry system was prevalent in Rigvedic period. Under which gifts were given at the time of the farewell of the girl. The details of sati system and purdah system are not available. Niyoga system was prevalent in the society during the Rig Vedic period. In the Rig Vedic period, women did not have the right to participate in politics, as well as they did not have the right to property.
Rice and joe were the main food items of the people in the Rig Vedic period. Apart from this, they also used to consume fruits, milk, curd, ghee and meat. At that time somers were the favorite drink of the people. In the Rig Vedic period, people used to wear clothes made of kshema, wool and deer leather. Mention of Nishka, Kurir and Karnashobhan is found in the main ornaments of the Rig Vedic period. Jewelery was worn by both men and women. Music was the main means of entertainment at that time. Apart from this, there is also evidence of chariot race, horse race, gaming and hunting, which shows that gambling was also prevalent at that time.
Economic life of the people of Rigvedic period. Economic life of the people of Rigvedic period
The main occupation of the people of Rigvedic period was animal husbandry and agriculture. Cow was used as currency in Rigveda. In Rigveda, Avi (sheep) and Aja (goat) are mentioned many times. In this period, the word Godhuli was used for the Mao of time while Gavyatu was used for the measurement of distance.
Agriculture is used 24 times in Rigveda while the word Go is used 174 times. The cow was considered sacred in the Rigveda and was the main means of exchange. During this period cows and maids were given to the priests as dakshina.
In the Rigvedic period, information is available about those who wash clothes, make clothes, do wood and metal work and utensils. In the Rigveda, the word ‘ayas’ is probably used for copper and bronze. In Rigveda the words Hiranya and Suvarna have been used for gold. Nishk means gold currency was prevalent at that time.
In the Rigvedic period barter system was started for buying and selling in trade. At that time, trade was done by both land route and waterway. Rigveda also mentions about traveling by boat with hundred rudders. During this period, the class taking interest by giving loans was called Beknaat i.e. usurer.
Religious life of the people of Rigvedic period.Religious life of the people of Rigvedic period
In the Rigvedic period the deities were divided into three parts-
1. Gods of the sky- Surya, Dyas, Varun, Mitra, Pushan, Vishnu, Usha, Savita etc. were prominent in this.
2. Gods of Space- In this Indra, Marut, Rudra, Vayu, Parjanya, Aja Ekapad etc. were prominent.
3. Gods of the Earth- Agni, Soma, Prithvi, Brihaspati and rivers were prominent in this.
In the Rigveda, Indra has been described as the most majestic deity. In about 250 hymns of Rigveda, the god Indra has been described.
Agni is considered to be the second most important deity in the Rigveda. The sacrifices were made to the gods only through fire. Agni is mentioned in about 200 hymns of Rigveda.
Varuna has been given the third place among the deities of Rigveda. In this, Varuna deity has been mentioned in about 30 hymns. The 7th mandala of Rigveda is dedicated to the deity Varuna.
Akash is considered to be the oldest deity of Rigveda. Akash was considered the supreme deity and Soma the god of vegetation.
In the Rigvedic period, the main method of worship of the deities was to recite praise and to offer earrings in the yajna. Barley and herbs were used as sacrifices in sacrifice.
There is no evidence of temple or idol worship in this period. In the Rigvedic period, the main purpose of praising the gods was the attainment of material pleasures and not the attainment of salvation.